Read the March 2016 Review Issue of Family Business Review!

June 24, 2016 by

4875652467_2579f7b518_zTo celebrate Family Business Review’s inaugural review issue, the March 2016 review issue will be open for the next month. In the issue’s  editorial, entitled “Oh, the Places We’ll Go! Reviewing Past, Present, and Future Possibilities in Family Business Research,” authors Jeremy C. Short, Pramodita Sharma, G. Thomas Lumpkin, and Allison W. Pearson dive into why this is such an important issue:

You might wonder why we believe now is a particularly promising time to conduct the first review issue of FBR. To understand this question, we would like to backup and take a brief look at the places this research stream has been. While there were only 111 peer-reviewed articles on family business before January 1, 1970, the pace of knowledge creation in this field accelerated in the 1990s yielding over 2,000 articles Current Issue Cover(Sharma, 2015). In the past 5 years between 2010 and 2014, over 4,000 family business articles were added to the knowledge pool. At this rate, the current decade will likely yield over 8,000 new peer-reviewed journal articles on family business. The increased interest in this field has also yielded returns in the quality of research output. Craig, Moores, Howorth, and Poutziouris (2009) observe that family business research is at a “tipping point” with an unprecedented acceptance in top-tier journals.

With the rapid growth of research in family business across multiple disciplines and outlets, coupled with the growing interest from around the globe (Woolridge, 2015), the field needs a review issue dedicated to unifying the research trends and ideas, looking both historically and toward the future. As the premier journal in family firm research, FBR is uniquely positioned to take that role. While review articles have appeared intermittently over the years, FBR’s 25th anniversary issue published in March (2012) started us along the trajectory of a dedicated review issue to take stock of past research and determine interesting future possibilities for impactful research.

This review issue includes five articles that critically examine 774 scholarly publications to identify the gaps between “what we know” and “what we need to know” concerning key topics and methods of interest to family business scholars. This particular collection of articles places us in the center of the family business research universe because of the breadth and relevance of topics reviewed.

Click here to access the Table of Contents of the December issue of Family Business Review, which will be free to access for the next month. Want to know about all the latest from Family Business Review? Click here to sigh up for e-alerts!

*Reading image attributed to Sebastien Wiertz (CC)

Extreme-Team Research: An Approach to Overcoming Research Obstacles

June 22, 2016 by

3729394795_d267b3ef22_zResearching the performance and management of extreme teams, which work in unconventional environments on high-risk tasks, presents a number of unique challenges to researchers, including limitations on data collection and sample sizes. In a new article published in Journal of Managemententitled “An Approach for Conducting Actionable Research with Extreme Teams,” authors Suzanne T. Bell, David M. Fisher, Shanique G. Brown, and Kristin E. Mann set out to develop a research approach that addresses the unique challenges of extreme-team research and allows extreme-team research to be applied broadly across more traditional teams. The abstract for the paper:

Extreme teams complete their tasks in unconventional performance environments and have serious consequences associated with failure. Examples include disaster relief teams, special operations teams, and astronaut crews. The unconventional performance environments within which these teams operate require researchers to carefully consider the context during the research process. These environments may also create formidable challenges to the research process, including constraining data collection and sample sizes. Given the serious consequences associated with failure, however, the challenges must be navigated so that the management of extreme teams can be evidence based. We present an approach for conducting actionable Current Issue Coverresearch on extreme teams. Our approach is an extension of mixed-methods research that is particularly well suited for emphasizing context. The approach guides researchers on how to integrate the local context into the research process, which allows for actionable recommendations. At the same time, our approach applies an intentionally broad framework for organizing context, which can serve as a mechanism through which the results of research on extreme teams can be meaningfully accumulated and integrated across teams. Finally, our approach and description of steps address the unique challenges common in extreme-team research. While developed with extreme teams in mind, we view our general approach as applicable to more traditional teams when the features of the context that impinge on team functioning are not adequately represented by typical descriptions of context in the literature and the goal is actionable research for the teams in question.

You can read “An Approach for Conducting Actionable Research with Extreme Teams” from Journal of Management free for the next two weeks by clicking here. Want to keep current on all of the latest research from Journal of ManagementClick here to sign up for e-alerts!

*Shuttle launch image attributed to The U.S. Army (CC)

The Role of Collaboration in Tourism Research

June 21, 2016 by

5053443202_bfa18dab8b_z[We’re pleased to welcome Gang Li of Deakin University. Gang recently published an article in Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research entitled “Temporal Analysis of Tourism Research Collaboration Network” with co-authors Wei Fan of Hong Kong Polytechnic University and Rob Law of Hong Kong Polytechnic University.]

Network analysis is an effective tool for the study of relationships among individual, including the relationships among researchers. We would like to investigate the changes of importance of individual researchers in collaboration networks of tourism research over time, which may help to obtain better understanding of collaboration to promote the progress of research.

Current Issue Cover

We proposed to evaluate the importance of researchers by considering both productivity and their contribution to the connectivity of collaboration networks.  In network analysis, centrality measures can reflect the importance of nodes in a network and degree and betweenness are two commonly used centrality measures in previous studies. This study found that betweenness centrality is better than degree centrality in terms of reflecting the changes of importance of researchers.

Information about the evolution of collaboration network and the changes of each researcher can be provided withthe method proposed in this study. With further research on topic analysis of published articles, the proposed method may help to explore trends in tourism and hospitality research. Moreover, this work provides an alternative method to utilize centrality measure in network analysis.

The abstract for the paper:

Network analysis is an effective tool for the study of collaboration relationships among researchers. Collaboration networks constructed from previous studies, and their changes over time have been studied. However, the impact of individual researchers in collaboration networks has not been investigated systematically. We introduce a new method of measuring the contribution of researchers to the connectivity of collaboration networks and evaluate the importance of researchers by considering both contribution and productivity. Betweenness centrality is found to be better than degree centrality in terms of reflecting the changes of importance of researchers. Accordingly, a method is further proposed to identify key researchers at certain periods. The performance of the identified researchers demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed method.

You can read “Temporal Analysis of Tourism Research Collaboration Network” from Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research free for the next two weeks by clicking here. Want to know all about the latest research from Journal of Hospitality & Tourism ResearchClick here to sign up for e-alerts!

*Image attributed to US Embassy (CC)

Do Reputation Rankings Influence the Perception of Firms?

June 20, 2016 by

9671129839_5dd00509e9_z[We’re pleased to welcome Michael Barnett of Rutgers University. Michael recently published an article in Business & Society with co-author Shovi Leih entitled “Sorry to (Not) Burst Your Bubble: The Influence of Reputation Rankings on Perceptions of Firms.”]

I became interested in the topic of how reputation rankings affect individual perceptions of firms when I noticed all the efforts that business schools put into their rankings and the effects that these rankings have on their stakeholders. Potential students, faculty, staff, and alumni can’t really tell what goes on across business schools on a day-to-day basis, and so they must rely on these reputation rankings for insights. Yet, the corporate reputation literature assumes that what one thinks of a particular organization is based on the actions of that organization — even though most of us most of the time have no clue. As a result, in many if not most schools, rankings now drive actions, perhaps more so than actions drive rankings.

Relative to corporations, what information do people rely on to form their views? Reputation rankings  from BAS CoverBusinessweek, the Financial Times, Fortune, US News & World Report, and other such sources have proliferated. Researchers have voiced concerns about reputation rankings; particularly the methodologies used to determine them. In this article, though, we are concerned not with the methods but with the influence of reputation rankings. How do people use rankings when forming their views of a firm? Do rankings affect or overshadow other information that one may have about a firm?

We isolate the effects of reputation rankings on individuals’ perceptions of a firm. Indeed, we find that perceptions are influenced by reputation rankings, particularly when these rankings are negative and congruent with other information about the firm. These findings suggest the need to develop a richer perspective on reputation. Corporate reputation has long been conceptualized as an aggregation of individual perceptions, but it also needs to be understood as a driver of individual perceptions. Greater focus on this latter aspect may help to explain loose linkages between a firm’s characteristics and its reputation. As a result of the influence of reputation rankings, a firm’s reputation may change even if its characteristics remain constant and, conversely, changes in a firm’s characteristics may be slow to produce change in its reputation. Additional insights into the information that individuals do and do not attend to in revising their perceptions of a firm can help better explain the connection between a firm’s behavior and its reputation and thus deepen understanding of how to effectively manage reputation.

The abstract for the article:

We measure the influence of reputation rankings on individuals’ perceptions of firms. Through experimental design, we vary whether and how participants are exposed to a reputation ranking alongside other information about a firm. We find that rankings influence perceptions when they are negative and congruent with other information about the firm. These findings help explain how a firm’s reputation can change even if its characteristics remain constant and why change in a firm’s characteristics can be slow to produce change in its reputation.

You can read “Sorry to (Not) Burst Your Bubble: The Influence of Reputation Rankings on Perceptions of Firms” from Business & Society free for the next two weeks by clicking here. Want to know all about the latest research from Business & SocietyClick here to sign up for e-alerts!

*Skyscraper image attributed to Mike H (CC)

One Strategy Does Not Fit All: A Look at Impression Management

June 17, 2016 by

26912109275_9b53648408_zImpression management describes the act of trying to control the first impression someone might have of an individual. It refers to shaping the perceptions others form about an individual’s behavior, motivation, morality, and other characteristics, like intelligence and future potential. Research on impression management has found significant differences between the impression management strategies used by women as compared to men. In fact, it has been revealed that women in Western context use less impression management strategies than men.

Some of the constructs closely related to impression management are self-monitoring, self-presentation and influence tactics (or impression management behaviors). There are two types of impression management strategies— soft impression management and hard impression management strategies. Hard impression management strategies include direct and aggressive behavior such as assertiveness, sanctions, upward appeal, blocking, self-promotion and intimidation. Soft impression management strategies include indirect and subtle behavior, such as ingratiation, coalition, exemplification and supplication. Combining certain behaviors can change the outcome of an individual’s impression management.Current Issue Cover

In identifying soft and hard impression management, researchers have been able to identify how different individuals from different backgrounds employ impression management. Indians avoid hard impression management strategies, in contrast with Dutch and Americans. Assertive and task-oriented behaviors were perceived as more effective by American and Swiss managers, and less effective by Chinese managers. As a result, it appears that hard impression management strategies are perceived as more effective by low power distance cultures as compared to high power distance cultures.

In addition to having a cultural impact, this comparison of impression management strategies also impacts gender. Indian women displaying authoritarian behaviors face perceptions of lesser effectiveness than their male counterparts. They may use charm, appearance, ingratiation and compliments as impression management strategies, which are soft impression management strategies. Women are perceived as more effective when displaying behaviors which are considered appropriate based on gender stereotypes. This may explain why Indian women tend to choose soft impression management strategies over hard impression management strategies.

This article shows that specific impression management strategies cannot be used with similar results across different contexts. Therefore, individuals need to be aware of the best impression management strategies specific to his or her situation.

The abstract for the article:

This article attempts to understand the impression management strategies used by women in Indian organizations. The extant research on gender differences in impression management, primarily conducted in Western cultures, has been inconclusive. This may be a result of attempting to generalize across cultures and/or the lack of research on moderating variables in the choice of impression management strategies by women. India provides an interesting context with high power distance culture, low social status of women as well as an emerging women’s movement.

Click here to read A Conceptual Framework for Understanding the Impression Management Strategies Used by Women in Indian Organizations for free from the South Asian Journal of Human Resources Management.

Make sure to sign up for e-alerts and be notified of all the latest research from South Asian Journal of Human Resources Management.

*Image attributed to ITU Pictures (CC)

Book Review: The Oxford Handbook of Creative Industries

June 16, 2016 by

Cover for 

The Oxford Handbook of Creative Industries

Candace Jones, Mark Lorenzen, Jonathan Sapsed , eds.: The Oxford Handbook of Creative Industries. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015. 576 pp. $170.00, hardcover.

Santi Furnari of City University London recently published a book review for The Oxford Handbook of Creative Industries in Administrative Science Quarterly. An excerpt from the review:

The Oxford Handbook of Creative Industries is a comprehensive compendium of up-to-date scholarly works on the formation, dynamics, and outcomes of creative industries. Two distinctive strengths of this handbook are the breadth of topics covered and the diversity of disciplinary perspectives brought to bear to examine such topics. The volume puts together a unique collection of leading scholars from different disciplines (management, sociology, economics, law, psychology, urban planning, and public policy) covering the complete range of theoretical and practical issues that characterize the study of creative industries today…

These diverse contributions are elegantly framed by Current Issue Coverthe editors’ introduction to the volume, which not only works well in setting the stage for the other chapters but also provides a useful theoretical framework to organize the arguments and evidence presented in them. This framework identifies two conceptual dimensions of a creative product: semiotic codes (i.e., the relations among the symbolic elements embedded in a creative product) and the material base (i.e., the technologies and materials giving form to a creative product). Each of these dimensions may undergo change, either slow or fast, depending on four change drivers: demand, technology, policy, and globalization. The result of this conceptualization is a two-by-two typology classifying four types of change in the creative industries depending on the pace (fast vs. slow) and locus (semiotic codes vs. material bases) of change.

You can read the full book review from Administrative Science Quarterly free for the next two weeks by clicking here. Want to know about all the latest research from Administrative Science Quarterly? Click here to sign up for e-alerts!

Developing a Food Involvement Scale to Study Food Tourism

June 15, 2016 by

4563690038_7e804749d1_z (1)In recent years, food tourism has seen a spike in popularity, but how can researchers better understand the impact of food involvement on food tourism? In the recent article, “Food Enthusiasts and Tourism: Exploring Food Involvement Dimension,” published in Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Researchauthors Richard N. S. Robinson and Donald Getz set out to establish a food involvement scale. The abstract for the article:

Involvement is a much theorized construct in the consumer behavior literature, yet extant food involvement scales have not been developed for leisure- or tourism-based contexts. Adopting a phenomenological approach, this article reports a study with two primary aims: to develop a customized food involvement scale and to administer the instrument to a sample of self-declared “food enthusiasts” with analysis focusing on identifying the underlying constructs of food involvement. An exploratory factor analysis finds four dimensions of food involvement: Food-Related Identity, Food Quality, Social Bonding, and Food Current Issue CoverConsciousness. The four dimensions are validated by discriminant analysis between the food enthusiast sample and a general population sample and logistic regression reveals that identity is the most powerful predictor of being a food enthusiast. We demonstrate the utility of the four factors by operationalizing them as variables in tests of difference vis-à-vis demographic variables and conclude the study by summarizing the theoretical and tourism destination implications. This research addresses a need for theory-driven knowledge to inform the burgeoning special interest tourism of food tourism.

You can read “Food Enthusiasts and Tourism: Exploring Food Involvement Dimension” from Journal of Hospitality of Tourism Research free for the next two weeks by clicking here. Want to know all about the latest research from Journal of Hospitality & Tourism ResearchClick here to sign up for e-alerts!

*Image attributed to Thomas Abbs (CC)

Critical Reflection: Real Life Applications for Mezirow’s Theory

June 14, 2016 by

14488224787_79c11e5287_z[We are pleased to welcome Henriette Lundgren. Henriette published an article in Human Resource Development Review entitled “On Critical Reflection: A Review of Mezirow’s Theory and its Operationalization,” with co-author Rob F. Poell.]

  • What inspired you to be interested in this topic?

To stop and think is considered good practice in most professional contexts. For example, we expect a nurse to review the patient’s symptoms before administering a medicine. Similarly, we expect an entrepreneur to examine the underlying market assumptions before venturing into a new business idea. Rather than rushing into glib problem solving or thoughtless decision-making, we believe that everybody needs to take some moments from time to time to reflect: What is the situation? How can I HRDdeal with it? Why is this important to me? To stop and think is another very basic way of describing the process of reflection, but how do we know whether someone is really reflecting – critically or not – about one’s own practice? This question triggered our literature review using Jack Mezirow’s critical reflection definition as a starting point.

  • Were there findings that were surprising to you?

Reflection and non-reflection come in many shades, for example “habitual action”, “thoughtful action”, “understanding”, “introspection”, “intensive reflection” or “critical reflection. Researchers in adult education and human resource development (HRD) have made a sincere effort to distinguish between these shades of reflection in their empirical studies. Maybe our mind was more binary before we started this project: “Reflection yes/no”. So being shown indicators that help us operationalize reflection in our own empirical research was a pleasant side effect of this study.

  • How do you see this study influencing future research and/or practice?

Our study gives an overview on critical reflection research and its operationalization, and it points out four areas of improvement (see checklist at the end of article). Critics might say that we could have taken more efforts to show explicitly the connections between critical reflection and learning and how our work impacts HRD theory, research, and practice. While these are good avenues for future research, we encourage readers to help us think along what our findings mean for learning and development of nurses, teachers and entrepreneurs, and we look forward to continuing this conversation and debate.

The abstract for the paper:

In this article, we review empirical studies that research critical reflection based on Mezirow’s definition. The concepts of content, process, and premise reflection have often been cited, and operationalizing Mezirow’s high-level transformative learning theory and its components has been the endeavor of adult education and human resource development (HRD) researchers. By conducting a literature review, we distill 12 research studies on critical reflection that we dissect, analyze, and compare. Discovering different approaches, assessment processes, and outcomes leads us to the conclusion that there is little agreement on how to operationalize reflection. We suggest four improvements: (a) integrating different critical reflection traditions, (b) using multiple data collection pathways, (c) opting for thematic embedding, and (d) attending to feelings. By implementing these improvements, we hope to stimulate closer alignment of approaches in critical reflection research across adult education and HRD researchers.

You can read “On Critical Reflection: A Review of Mezirow’s Theory and its Operationalization” from Human Resource Development Review free for the next two weeks by clicking here. Want to know all about the latest research Podcast Microphonefrom Human Resource Development Review? Click here to sign up for e-alertsYou can also listen to a podcast with author Henriette Lundgren as she discusses her work on this article. You can listen to the podcast here.

*Image attributed to Kent Nguyen (CC)

HenrietteHenriette Lundgren is a workplace educator and an associated researcher with Tilburg University in the Netherlands. Her main scholarly interests are learning in the workplace, the use of reflection instruments, and adult education theory.

Rob

Rob F. Poell is a professor of human resource development (HRD) in the Department of Human Resource Studies at Tilburg University in the Netherlands. His main scholarly interests are learning in the workplace, action learning, project-based learning, organizing HRD, and learning networks.

The Positive Collective: The Impact of Positivity on Team Performance

June 13, 2016 by

9151232338_b29ffc5441_z[We’re pleased to welcome Nale Lehmann-Willenbrock. Nale recently published an article in Group & Organization Management entitled “Understanding Positivity Within Dynamic Team Interactions: A Statistical Discourse Analysis” with co-authors Ming Ming Chiu, Zhike Lei, and Simone Kauffeld.]

  • What inspired you to be interested in this topic?

Positivity has been studied extensively at the individual level, and studies have shown that having a positive, optimistic outlook has numerous benefits for the individual.

However, when you consider the reality of the workplace, most of us work in some kind of team setting. So this was a research gap: How does positivity emerge in dynamic team interactions, rather than viewing it as an individual experience?

Much of our attitudes and experiences at work are shaped by the social context, in terms of what our co-workers are doing, and in terms of timing. For example, whether or not a team member expresses positivity could depend on the momentary focus of a team conversation (e.g., focusing on problems versus on solutions) and also on the temporal context (e.g., positivity might be more likely later on in a team meeting, when lots of good ideas have been brought to the table).

Moreover, I’m fascinated by the concept of conversation dynamics, or conversation flow: Consider a team meeting where one speaker dominates the discussion, versus a meeting that is truly dynamic. Positivity should be more likely when the team GOM_Feb_2016.inddconversation is more dynamic, such that many team members are involved and invested.

In addition to predicting when positivity would emerge within team conversation processes, we were also interested in performance linkages. Given the many individual benefits of being optimistic, we expected that team positivity would also aid team performance.

  • Were there findings that were surprising to you?

Speaker switches – i.e., how dynamic a team interaction was – played a major role. Speaker switches led to an immediate “boost” in positivity, and they also elevated the effects of other conversation characteristics on positivity (e.g., positivity was more likely after a solution statement particularly when there were lots of speakers involved).

But what I found really  astonishing was the fact that team and individual variables (e.g., how much an individual team member talked overall) explained only 8% of the variance in positivity. Instead, the major driving forces of positivity within team interactions were the behaviors preceding each positivity statement. Timing also played an important role (positivity was more likely in later time periods within a meeting).

  • How do you see this study influencing future research and/or practice?

In terms of research implications, our findings suggests that we really need to study the micro-level dynamics of behaviors in teams. Studies that focus on the individual or team level will likely miss out on most of the variance in subtle team behaviors such as positivity.

In line with several calls for more dynamic team research, our findings emphasize the need to include a temporal perspective. Innovative methods such as Statistical Discourse Analysis, which we applied in this study, can help us address this need.

Our finding that overall positivity was meaningfully linked to team performance has managerial implications. Team leaders should pay attention and actively encourage positivity in team interactions, as these behaviors help implement ideas and move the team forward.

The abstract for the paper:

Positivity has been heralded for its individual benefits. However, how positivity dynamically unfolds within the temporal flow of team interactions remains unclear. This is an important oversight, as positivity can be key to team problem solving and performance. In this study, we examine how team micro-processes affect the likelihood of positivity occurring within dynamic team interactions. In doing so, we build on and expand previous work on individual positivity and integrate theory on temporal team processes, interaction rituals, and team problem solving. We analyze 43,139 utterances during the meetings of 43 problem-solving teams in two organizations. First, we find that the observed overall frequency of positivity behavior in a team is positively related to managerial ratings of team performance. Second, using statistical discourse analysis, we show that solution-focused behavior and previous positivity within the team interaction process increase the likelihood of subsequent positivity expressions, whereas positivity is less likely after problem-focused behavior. Dynamic speaker switches moderate these effects, such that interaction instances involving more speakers increase the facilitating effects of solutions and earlier positivity for subsequent positivity within team interactions. We discuss the theoretical and managerial implications of micro-level team positivity and its performance benefits.

You can read “Understanding Positivity Within Dynamic Team Interactions: A Statistical Discourse Analysis” from Group & Organization Management free for the next two weeks by clicking here. Want to know all about the latest research from Group & Organization Management? Click here to sign up for e-alerts!

*Smiley faces image attributed to ghatamos (CC)

 

The Impact of Family Management on Firm Technological Innovation

June 10, 2016 by

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Does family involvement in management impact the technological innovation of a firm? In a recent article published in Family Business Reviewentitled “Technological Innovation Inputs, Outputs, and Performance: The Moderating Role of Family Involvement in Management,” authors Julio Diéguez-Soto, Monsterrat Manzaneque, and Alfonso A. Rojo-Ramírez suggest that family management can hinder the research and development linked to firm technological innovation. The abstract for the paper:

The aim of this research is to study the moderating role of family management in the relationships between the intensity of research and development and the occurrence of continuous technological innovation and between the existence of technological innovation outcomes and long-term firm performance. The results show that family FBR_C1_revised authors color.inddmanagement reduces efficiency in the conversion of research and development expenses into technological innovation outcomes over time. Our findings also suggest that the influence of family management significantly contributes to improving the effect of the achievement of technological innovation on long-term performance.

You can read “Technological Innovation Inputs, Outputs, and Performance: The Moderating Role of Family Involvement in Management” from Family Business Review free for the next two weeks by clicking here. Want to know all about the latest research from Family Business Review? Click here to sign up for e-alerts!

*Image attributed to Bryan Ledgard (CC)

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