Author Archive

Neelima Paranjpey on Problem-Solving and Appreciative Inquiry

February 27, 2015

[We’re pleased to welcome Neelima Paranjpey of Benedictine University. Dr. Paranjpey recently collaborated with Gervase R. Bushe of Simon Fraser University on their paper “Comparing the Generativity of Problem-Solving and Appreciative Inquiry: A Field Experiment” from the Journal of Applied Behavioral Science.]

When I was pursuing my PhD in Organization Development, I was very inquisitive about the Appreciative Inquiry process. For years, OD has JABS_72ppiRGB_powerpointfocused on a problem seeking approach and the positive approach to organization change made me curious about its application, whether it works, why it works, how we can improve its theory and application. When I read more I found that Appreciative Inquiry is more than just positive and that it changes organization’s mindset and increases employees capability for renewed social action.

I was working in a transit organization which was undergoing a significant change. The leaders had a desire to initiate an employee recognition program to increase morale in the organization. I used the employee recognition initiative as a basis to conduct my field experiment in appreciative inquiry. I was interested in understanding whether appreciative inquiry was more generative than problem solving. It was fascinating to lead the groups through the process. Participants were engaged in all the groups as this was the first time such an initiative was implemented in the organization. However, the ideas emerging from the appreciative inquiry sessions were much more interesting and applicable. This was apparent from not only the quantitative results, but even the qualitative open-ended questions asked during the focus groups corroborated the findings. The research has several implications to both academicians and practitioners. This is first time that generativity has been conceptualized and measured in appreciative inquiry. Also, given that a generative approach to appreciative inquiry results in compelling and practical ideas in a limited time frame and creates a more favorable mindset towards changes makes it an important study for organization leaders who are attempting to get real employee engagement in any change initiative.

You can read “Comparing the Generativity of Problem-Solving and Appreciative Inquiry: A Field Experiment” from the Journal of Applied Behavioral Science for free by clicking here. Don’t forget to sign up for e-alerts and get all the latest news and research from the Journal of Applied Behavioral Science sent directly to your inbox!

Questions? Comments? Feel free to contact Dr. Paranjpey at neelimaparanjpey<at>gmail<dot>com!

gervaseGervase Bushe is Professor of Leadership and Organization Development in the Beedie School of Business at Simon Fraser University. He has 30 years of experience in a wide range of organizational change and development projects and is internationally known for his expertise in appreciative inquiry, a method for transforming organizations by focusing on what works.

27fd91fNeelima Paranjpey, PhD is an experienced Talent Management and OD professional who specializes in providing positive change solutions to improve and grow organizations. She currently works with Vaya Group, Chicago as an Assessment & Development Consultant. She earned her PhD in Organization Development from Benedictine University and MS in I/O Psychology from Illinois Institute of Technology.

Don’t Miss Your Chance to Read Journal of Management’s Special Issue for Free!

February 25, 2015
Thomas Bayes

Thomas Bayes

Time is running out to read the Special Issue on Bayesian Probability and Statistics in Management Research from Journal of Management for free! How can Bayesian methods overcome limitations of frequentist methods? What is the probability that Bayesian methodologies will one day supersede traditional frequentist methodologies in the organizational science community? Could Bayesian modeling of interactions lead to a general improvement in the communication and understanding of research results? These questions and more are closely examined in the Special Issue.

From Special Issue Editors Michael J. Zyphur, Frederick L. Oswald, and Deborah E. Rupp:

We are pleased to announce the special issue on Bayesian Probability and Statistics in Management Research. Although the past 20 years has jom coverwitnessed a veritable explosion of Bayesian applications in the social and physical sciences, management research has yet to fully take part in the ‘Bayesian revolution’. However, there are many important conceptual and practical reasons for management researchers to engage with Bayesian approaches. These include enabling more precise and flexible methods for testing hypotheses, describing statistical results in a more intuitive manner than is possible with traditional statistical methods, and the availability of a large and multidisciplinary literature with applied Bayesian examples from which we can learn.

This special issue provides JOM readers with key Bayesian concepts and applications relevant to all forms of management research. The issue is truly special for bringing together world-class experts on Bayesian analysis from outside of management (e.g., Gerd Gigerenzer, Andrew Gelman, and Maria Carla Galavotti) to contribute important perspectives that dovetail with a series of substantive contributions from management scholars. These substantive topics are rich and varied: how historical and present research and perspectives inform the adoption of Bayesian analysis in management research; Bayesian approaches to hypothesis testing and structural equation modeling; Bayesian modeling of interpersonal processes and team performance over time; Bayesian model averaging and variable selection in the context of entrepreneurship research; Bayesian models of knowledge networks and organizational change; and Bayesian methods for deriving variance estimates in generalizability theory and meta-analysis. This special issue has something for everyone.

You can read the Special Issue on Bayesian Probability and Statistics in Management Research from Journal of Management for free for the next 60 days! Click here to access the Table of Contents. Want to know when all the latest research from Journal of Management becomes available? Click here to sign up for e-alerts!

Marie Carasco-Saul on Leadership and Employee Engagement

February 23, 2015

HRDR_72ppiRGB_powerpoint[We’re pleased to welcome Marie Carasco-Saul of The Pennsylvania State University. Marie collaborated with Woocheol Kim and Taesung Kim, both also of The Pennsylvania State University, on their article “Leadership and Employee Engagement: Proposing Research Agendas Through a Review of Literature” from the March 2015 issue of Human Resource Development Review.]

  • What inspired you to be interested in this topic?

There has not been much research examining the relationship between employee engagement and leadership. The term employee engagement has received increasing attention since Kahn (1990) introduced the concept as personal engagement in association with positive psychology and positive influences on organizational effectiveness. We were inspired to explore the concept intersections, learn and offer an overarching multi-dimensional picture surrounding the relationship between leadership and engagement as a foundation for organizational leaders and scholars to build the body of knowledge.

  • Were there findings that were surprising to you?

It was surprising that the first empirical study that investigated the relationship between leadership and employee engagement was conducted in 2009, with most studies focusing on transformational leadership and engagement. Given the recent nature of these investigations, other leadership styles have not received significant exploration with engagement.

  • How do you see this study influencing future research and/or practice?

Since employee engagement and leadership are highly relevant concepts to organizations, we believe that we provided a big picture of the relationship between the broad concepts and an impetus for subsequent efforts to advance knowledge by offering a research-based conceptual framework, and recommendations that could be applicable to the workplace. Additionally, this work will encourage deeper examination of leadership and engagement constructs beyond transformational leadership.

You can read “Leadership and Employee Engagement: Proposing Research Agendas Through a Review of Literature” from Human Resource Development Review by clicking here. You can have notifications of all the latest research from Human Resource Development Review sent directly to your inbox. Just click here to sign up for -alerts!

9c96051c90b9a493a5_l_538f4Woocheol Kim holds a PhD in the workforce education and development program with an emphasis on human resource development (HRD) and organization development (OD) at the Pennsylvania State University. His research focuses on positive change, work/employee engagement, workplace learning and performance improvement, employee leadership, and career development within organizations.

6a85e52f39421db748_l_8a024Taesung Kim holds a PhD in the workforce education and development program with an emphasis on HRD and OD at the Pennsylvania State University. He earned both his BA in education and MEd in HRD from Yonsei University in Korea (South) and worked for KPMG Korea as a senior manager in the Learning and Development Center. His research interests include workplace learning and performance, leadership, employee/work engagement, professional ethics, and organizational change management.

blogpicMarie Carasco-Saul is a PhD Candidate in the workforce education and development program with an emphasis in HRD and OD at the Pennsylvania State University. She holds an undergraduate degree in Psychology and a graduate degree in Industrial-Organizational Psychology, and has worked in Talent Management in the Oil and Gas industry. She also holds the Global Certification in Human Resources (GPHR®) from the Human Resources Certification Institute (HRCI). Her research focuses on high-potential leader development.

Martin Mende on Coproduction of Transformative Services

February 18, 2015

business-graphics-1428634-m[We’re pleased to welcome Martin Mende of Florida State University. Dr. Mende recently collaborated with Jenny van Doorn of the University of Groningen on their article “Coproduction of Transformative Services as a Pathway to Improved Consumer Well-Being: Findings from a Longitudinal Study on Financial Counseling” from Journal of Service Research.]

  • What inspired you to be interested in this topic?

This paper is inspired by the novel paradigm of Transformative Service Research which is concerned with uplifting changes and improvements in consumer well-being. Clearly, credit counseling is a core area of TSR, because it is a service designed to (re)establish consumers’ financial well-being (e.g., by increasing their credit scores and decreasing their perceived financial stress). The relevance of financial counseling has sharply risen in the past decade, reflecting the financial strain that many households have been experiencing, especially related to the recession. Indeed, each year millions of consumers seek help in managing their debt from counseling agencies. We found it surprising that the effectiveness of credit counseling remains somewhat nebulous, and that the exact mechanisms through which counseling helps improve consumer well-being needed more research. Because the success of financial counseling depends heavily on the collaborative behavior of customers, we propose customer coproduction, defined as a customer’s participation in creating the service, as a pathway to financial well-being. Indeed, we find that customer coproduction can positively affect consumers’ objective financial well-being (i.e., an increase in their credit score) and their subjective financial well-being (i.e., reduce their perceived financial stress).

  • Were there findings that were surprising to you?

The findings were probably more inspiring to us than they were surprising. Our research was guided by a theoretical framework that predicted certain outcomes, but it was inspiring and rewarding to see the positive effects of coproduction on consumer well-being (i.e., their increased credit score and reduced financial stress) emerge. The results show that success in credit counseling is truly about the collaboration between advisors and clients; clients (by getting engaged as coproducers) have considerable control about their financial strain. We feel this is a positive and encouraging finding, because many families may feel that they have lost control over their financial situation.

  • How do you see this study influencing future research and/or practice?

We hope it helps financial service providers (e.g., credit counselors), public policy makers, and – of course – even consumers in credit counseling.

Our research offers implications for service providers with regard to (1) 02JSR13_Covers.inddmeasuring customer profiles, (2) segmenting the customer portfolio and designing service delivery for specific segments, and (3) training and empowering employees. First, service providers who survey clients on their service literacy, involvement, and attachment style will be able to better understand and predict the collaborative relationship with their clients. Second, segmenting clients on the basis of these variables allows for customized service provision, which is a more promising pathway to coproduction and consumer well-being (e.g., clients could participate in segment-specific workshops that address their specific motivational needs and/or profiles). In parallel, our results show that segmentation criteria should also include some of our covariates (age, gender, or cohabitation). For example, credit counselors should be cognizant of our finding that the segment of female clients who live with a partner is likely to perceive considerably higher levels of financial stress than the segment of male clients who live alone. Third, employees who provide transformative services should be trained to understand the fundamental effects of coproduction on well-being, as well as the antecedents of coproduction. Furthermore, employees need to be empowered (or even incentivized) to treat client segments with different profiles in a tailored manner.

From a public policy perspective, our findings support the idea of improving consumers’ objective and subjective financial literacy because both constructs drive customer coproduction. Continuing the efforts on public financial education (e.g., educational offers in schools or community centers) is necessary. In addition, public policy makers should engage in efforts designed to increase consumer involvement. To do so, they can leverage traditional marketing tools. One example of such a policy effort is the “Questions Are the Answer” campaign, launched by the U.S. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality to motivate patients to become more engaged when meeting with their doctors (e.g., by preparing questions before their appointment). This campaign integrated traditional advertising (e.g., television, radio, print) with an interactive website. Similar campaigns, albeit on a potentially smaller scale or targeted at specific consumer segments, can be designed to increase consumer involvement in other well-being settings (including financial counseling). Such campaigns would go beyond current approaches of merely providing self-educational tools (e.g., nfcc.org) and would train clients on how they can collaborate with service providers most effectively. In rolling out such campaigns, policy makers should collaborate with community-level entities (e.g., schools, employers, community centers, nonprofit organizations) to raise awareness of the positive impact well-being programs can have on consumers’ (financial) well-being if clients are involved. In line with this idea, our work has an important, final implication for consumers in credit counseling. Consumers who act as coproducers benefit in terms of their own objective and subjective well-being, a conclusion that is most inspiring.

You can read “Coproduction of Transformative Services as a Pathway to Improved Consumer Well-Being: Findings from a Longitudinal Study on Financial Counseling” from Journal of Service Research for free by clicking here. Want to get notified when Journal of Service Research releases new research? Click here to sign up for e-alerts!

Martin-Mende_smallMartin Mende is an assistant professor of marketing at Florida State University. His research focuses on service science, relationship marketing, transformative service research, and marketing strategy. His research has appeared in the Journal of Marketing Research, Journal of Service Research, and Journal of Business Research.

doornJvanJenny van Doorn is an associate professor of marketing at the Faculty of Business and Economics at the University of Groningen, the Netherlands. The main focus of her research is on customer relationships, customer engagement and sustainability. Her work has appeared in Journal of Marketing, Journal of Service Research, International Journal of Research in Marketing, and Harvard Business Review.

The March Issue of Administrative Science Quarterly is Now Online!

February 16, 2015

The March issue of Administrative Science Quarterly is now available and can be read online for free for the next 30 days. This issue offers a range of compelling articles on organizational studies as well as astute book reviews.

The lead article, “Creativity from Constraint? How the Political Correctness Norm Influences Creativity in Mixed-sex Work Groups” was authored by Jack A. Goncalo, Jennifer A. Chatman, Michelle M. Duguid and Jessica A. Kennedy. You can read the abstract below:

As work organizations become increasingly gender diverse, existing theoretical models have failed to explain why such diversity can have a ASQ_v60n1_Mar2015_cover.inddnegative impact on idea generation. Using evidence from two group experiments, this paper tests theory on the effects of imposing a political correctness (PC) norm, one that sets clear expectations for how men and women should interact, on reducing interaction uncertainty and boosting creativity in mixed-sex groups. Our research shows that men and women both experience uncertainty when asked to generate ideas as members of a mixed-sex work group: men because they may fear offending the women in the group and women because they may fear having their ideas devalued or rejected. Most group creativity research begins with the assumption that creativity is unleashed by removing normative constraints, but our results show that the PC norm promotes rather than suppresses the free expression of ideas by reducing the uncertainty experienced by both sexes in mixed-sex work groups and signaling that the group is predictable enough to risk sharing more—and more-novel—ideas. Our results demonstrate that the PC norm, which is often maligned as a threat to free speech, may play an important role in promoting gender parity at work by allowing demographically heterogeneous work groups to more freely exchange creative ideas.

You can access the Table of Contents for this issue of Administrative Science Quarterly by clicking here. You can keep up-to-date on all the latest news and research from Administrative Science Quarterly by clicking here to sign up for e-alerts!

Book Review: Informal Labor, Formal Politics, and Dignified Discontent in India

February 13, 2015

51+jLLjZIfLInformal Labor, Formal Politics, and Dignified Discontent in India. By Rina Agarwala. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2013. 264 pp. ISBN 978-1-107-66308-4, $29.99 (Paperback).

Looking for a good read for the long weekend? Akshay Mangla of Harvard Business School recently reviewed “Informal Labor, Formal Politics, and Dignified Discontent in India” in ILR Review.

Informal workers, unprotected by official labor law, make up a majority of the labor force in most developing countries. In addition to performing agricultural labor, informal workers construct roads, clean homes, staff kitchens, and knit clothing. Notwithstanding their centrality to the ILR_72ppiRGB_powerpointeconomy, scholarship on the organization and politics of informal workers remains sparse. We know far too little about the work conditions they experience, how they understand their rights, and not least of all, the strategies by which they organize and engage in formal politics. As with much of the informal economy, informal workers are largely treated as a residual category, one whose import is expected to diminish with economic and political modernization. While much recent scholarship documents the resilience of the informal economy in both developing and rich countries, few studies have investigated whether and how informal workers mobilize as a class and demand their rights. If anything, informality is thought to preclude workers from engaging in collective action given the dispersed and insecure nature of informal employment.

Informal Labor, Formal Politics, and Dignified Discontent in India offers a fascinating account of how informal workers in India have organized themselves to make collective demands on the state. India provides a rich and important context in which to study informal labor. More than 90% of the Indian labor force is engaged in informal work. Moreover, India’s diverse federal democracy offers considerable variation for analyzing the conditions under which informal workers successfully organize themselves. Agarwala exploits this variation effectively to examine informal worker organizations across two sectors, the construction industry and the bidi (hand-rolled cigarette) industry, and analyzes how successful they are across three Indian states. The study can be divided broadly into two parts: 1) it examines the organizational demands and strategies of India’s informal workers, and 2) it analyzes the political conditions that enable or constrain informal workers’ organizations from achieving their objectives. The research design allows Agarwala to analyze both industry- and state-level factors that could potentially shape the organizational strategies and effectiveness of informal workers’ organizations.

Click here to read the rest of the review from ILR Review! Want to know about all the latest research and reviews like this from ILR Review? Click here to sign up for e-alerts!

Throwback Thursday: How HR Impacts Organizational Performance

February 12, 2015

[In honor of #ThrowbackThursday, we’re pleased to bring you one of our most read posts on Human Resource Development Review‘s article “HRD and HRM Perspectives on Organizational Performance: A Review of Literature.”]

 Victor1558 (cc)

Victor1558 (cc)

Managers rely upon HR departments for services such as recruitment, payroll, and employee relations, but experts have found that HR plays a much more significant role in organizations. To explore this role, Meera Alagaraja of the University of Louisville published HRD and HRM Perspectives on Organizational Performance: A Review of Literature in the Human Resource Development Review June 2013 issue:

HRDR_72ppiRGB_150pixWA systematic review of literature on the relationship of human resources (HR) and organizational performance (OP) revealed a dearth of contribution from human resource development (HRD) in establishing the linkage. This linkage, which refers to the significant relationship between HRD and OP, is an important topic relevant to research and practice. The review utilized OP as the dependent variable to survey the state of human resource literature and thus, includes contributions from human resource management (HRM). The literature review revealed similarities and differences in the conceptualization of OP as a dependent variable between the two fields. On further analysis, the similarities and differences reveal convergence in specific areas of inquiry as well as emphasize the underlying differences in the philosophical assumptions of HRD and HRM. The independent contributions of HRD and HRM in establishing the HR–OP linkage also reflect the utilization of diverse research designs, methods of data collection, analysis, and findings. Both fields have focused on strategic contributions for improving organizational performance and are very much connected in practice. Much of the separation therefore, appears to be academic where competing views highlight a tension that exists in theory, research and what we know about effective HRD or HRM in practice.

Continue reading the article here, and get e-alerts about the latest research published in Human Resource Development Review.

Alexander Bolinger and Kory Brown on Teaching Entrepreneurial Failure as a Threshold Concept

February 11, 2015

JME_72ppiRGB_powerpoint[We’re pleased to welcome Alexander R. Bolinger of Idaho State University and Kory D. Brown of Pacific Lutheran University. Drs. Bolinger and Brown recently published an article in Journal of Management Education titled “Entrepreneurial Failure as a Threshold Concept: The Effects of Student Experiences.”]

  • What inspired you to be interested in this topic?

Teaching students about entrepreneurial failure is a topic that appealed to both Kory and me because it intersects with our interests and experiences. I study creativity in groups and one of the challenges of creative groups is that they experience a lot of failure – they go down many paths that ultimately don’t work out and they have to come to terms with failing a lot. Kory was an entrepreneur and manager in the semiconductor industry prior to coming to academia, so he saw the impact of failure and was a bit frustrated by the difficulties of getting students to appreciate that entrepreneurs can fail miserably and ultimately come out better for it on the other side.

  • Were there findings that were surprising to you?

I think we were surprised by just how important experiences, any experiences with entrepreneurship, were in affecting students’ perceptions of the extent to which failure can have productive aspects. Our study design was conservative to the extent that we asked participants to self-report their experiences with entrepreneurship and we did not differentiate based on the length or quality of the experiences. What this tells us is that simply getting involved and experiencing entrepreneurship, even in limited ways, can have significant effects in broadening students’ perceptions of both the costs and benefits of failure.

  • How do you see this study influencing future research and/or practice?

In response to our findings, we hope that failure is given greater priority as an important topic to discuss in entrepreneurship classes. In our research for this paper, we looked at existing textbooks and found that many of them only mention failure in passing, often in terms of overall failure rates of new ventures.

The risk, as we see it, is that students might either be so scared of failure that they don’t seriously explore entrepreneurship as an option, or conversely they don’t give much thought to the consequences of failure. Either way, instructors do not equip students to appreciate the nuances of failure – its emotional and social, as well as financial dimensions, but also its potentially productive consequences over time – if they do not spend time candidly incorporating it into their courses.
More critically, our findings suggest that universities would do well to cultivate opportunities for students to experience entrepreneurship, even in limited ways. We see it as no accident that some of the most successful entrepreneurship programs in schools of business across the United States and around the world have integrated into their curricula regular, structured opportunities for students to experience entrepreneurship.

You can read Entrepreneurial Failure as a Threshold Concept: The Effects of Student Experiences from Journal of Management Education for free by clicking here! Want to know about all the latest news and research from Journal of Management Education? Click here to sign up for e-alerts!

BolingerAlexAlexander R. Bolinger is an assistant professor of management at Idaho State University, USA. His research interests include group work and its effects on group members, negotiation, and service work. His research has also appeared in Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes and Cornell Hospitality Quarterly.

Brown-130x130Kory D. Brown is an Assistant Professor of Management and teaches strategy and knowledge management courses in the undergraduate and MBA programs at Pacific Lutheran University. His research interests explore collaborative innovation, technology management, networks, alliances, and entrepreneurship. He has extensive involvement in standard technologies such as ZigBee, Bluetooth, USB, and IrDA. Dr. Brown actively consults with technology firms in technology-centric business planning, corporate strategy, and external financing.

Should Restaurants Offer “Early-Bird” or “Night-Owl” Specials?

February 10, 2015

vine-glass-1208604-mDiners who avoid the dinner rush at restaurants can’t seem to catch a break. In the 90’s, Jerry Seinfield made fun of senior citizens who took advantage of early-bird specials while Jack in the Box’s current late-night meal promotion, “the munchie box,” lampoons college-aged males. But are early-bird and night-owl specials even effective for increasing a restaurant’s revenue? Gary M. Thompson of Cornell University recently explored this topic in his article “Deciding Whether to Offer ‘Early-Bird’ or ‘Night-Owl’ Specials in Restaurants: A Cross-Functional View” from Journal of Service Research.

The abstract:

In a long history of capacity and demand management research in services, it has often been suggested that pricing discounts and specials can increase demand in off-peak periods. We 02JSR13_Covers.inddexamine this issue in the contexts of restaurants, where the practices of offering discounts to restaurant patrons for dining early or dining late—commonly known as “early-bird” and “night-owl” specials, respectively—exist throughout the world. These specials bridge marketing and operations—marketing from the goal of increasing customer demand in the off-peak periods and operations from the perspective of having to serve those customers. The effectiveness of these specials has yet to be examined. While simulation would be an ideal tool for predicting the specials’ net revenue benefits, it might be impractical for many restaurateurs, so we develop three simple “back-of-the-envelope” type calculations. Restaurateurs could use these calculations when deciding whether to offer a special. In the eight large simulation-based experiments we conducted, we find that it is important to estimate revenue cannibalization from full-fare customers. The calculations prove to be far more accurate for night-owl specials than for early-bird specials. This has important implications for decisions about offering the specials and raises a flag regarding a potential marketing-operations conflict.

You can read “Deciding Whether to Offer ‘Early-Bird’ or ‘Night-Owl’ Specials in Restaurants: A Cross-Functional View” by from Journal of Service Research by clicking here. Want to be notified of all the latest research like this from Journal of Service Research? Click here to sign up for e-alerts!

Does a Different Degree of Teamwork Exist in Indian Public and Private Sector Organizations?

February 9, 2015

person-decision-1200502-mBehavioral scientists have found that teamwork is an indicator of job satisfaction. Jaime (2001) demonstrated that groups who use this participatory mechanism in their work not only improve in terms of productivity, quality and innovation, but enjoy greater job satisfaction as well. Additionally, Whitfield et al., (1995) found that operating as part of a team may have positive impacts on individual worker’s attitudes and beliefs, But is there a difference in the degree of teamwork in Indian public and private sector organizations? Jai Prakash Sharma and Naval Bajpai explore in their article “Teamwork a Key Driver in Organizations and Its Impact on Job Satisfaction of Employees in Indian Public and Private Sector Organizations” from Global Business Review.

The abstract:

Despite an increasing number of studies on teamwork, no unifying work is focused on the measurement of the degree of difference in teamwork in a public sector organization home_coverand a private sector organization in the Indian context. Teamwork decreases job satisfaction, motivation and performance, and increases absenteeism and turnover intensions. We hypothesized that there is a significant difference in the degree of teamwork in public sector and private sector organization. Data were collected from 250 employees consisting of managerial and non-managerial staff from both public sector and private sector organizations. The results showed that employees in public sector organizations have a greater degree of teamwork in comparison to private sector employees. In addition job satisfaction increases or decreases with the increase or decrease in teamwork. The purpose of this study is to invoke teamwork in private sector organizations. Obtained results were in the line of the hypotheses. In terms of teamwork, a significant difference is noticed between public sector and private sector organizations. As expected, public sector employees have exhibited a higher degree of teamwork as compared to private sector employees. Most importantly, salary satisfaction is being proven as the catalyst for enhancing the job satisfaction level of employees.

You can click here to read “Teamwork a Key Driver in Organizations and Its Impact on Job Satisfaction of Employees in Indian Public and Private Sector Organizations” for free from Global Business Review. Want to know about all the latest research from Global Business Review? Click here to sign up for e-alerts!


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