70-20-10 and the Dominance of Informal Learning

[We’re pleased to welcome author Dr. Alan Clardy of Towson University. Dr. Clardy recently published an article in the Human Resource and Development Review entitled “70-20-10 and the Dominance of Informal Learning: A Fact in Search of Evidence,” which is currently free to read for a limited time. Below, Dr. Clardy reflects on the inspiration for conducting this research:]

hrda_16_4.cover

What motivated you to pursue this research?

I reviewed the recent book “Using Experience to Develop Leadership Talent” for Personnel Psychology a few years ago. In that book, mention was made in an off-handed factual way at several points to a 70-20-10 rule. I had two reactions: I wasn’t that familiar with that rule, and I started to wonder where the original data could be found. I found myself wanting to see the original studies but the more I looked, the more disappointed I became. Then I wanted to discover where this 70-20-10 “fact” really came from.

What has been the most challenging aspect of conducting your research? Were there any surprising findings?

As I note my article, the literature on this matter is scattered and not particularly integrated. So back-tracking through citations, then finding the original sources became a chore at times. Perhaps the biggest challenge was looking through these original studies to see if they mentioned at 70% rule and/or presented any data for a 70% rule.

In what ways is your research innovative, and how do you think it will impact the field?

It was not uniquely innovative but doing a search for root data in a dispersed literature is somewhat distinctive. Even though I’m sure I did not identify every instance in which a 70-20-10 rule has been noted, I am pleased that I was able to identify as much as I did and then to organize and report it in a more coherent and connected manner.

My academic grounding in HRD has a strong foundation in Industrial and Organizational Psychology. Interestingly, the chapters on employee training and development in all standard I/O textbooks and, as I’m recalling, texts on Organization Behavior do not cover, much less mention informal learning experiences. I/O texts, for example, focus almost exclusively on formal training. It would be a mistake to conclude from my paper that I disagree with the notion that much learning about job and work occurs “informally”. Rather, there is a great deal of evidence that much learning does occur “informally”. What I was objecting to was the dogmatic and unqualified assertion that 70% of job/work of all learning happens informally. So, if my article could help generate coverage of “informal” learning in I/O and OB texts, I think that would be a beneficial impact on all of these fields. I do call for more research on how to structure various kinds of “informal” learning venues to improve their effectiveness; seeing more of that would also be a positive impact.

Stay up-to-date with the latest research from the Human Resource and Development Review and sign up for email alerts today through the homepage!

 

 

Journal of Service Research Call for Papers: Customer Engagement through Automated Service Interactions

02JSR13_Covers.inddMake an impact on service research and submit to the Journal of Service Research’s upcoming Special Issue,  which will seek to explore ways in which automated service interactions engage customers and create customer and firm value!

Journal of Service Research (JSR), peer-reviewed and published quarterly, is widely considered the world’s leading service research journal. It is a must read to keep up with the latest in service research. Practical and readable, JSR offers the necessary knowledge and tools to cope with an increasingly service-based economy. JSR features articles by the world’s leading service experts, from both academia and the business world.

For more details click here.

Manuscripts should be submitted electronically to http://mc.manuscriptcentral.com/jsr.

You will need to create an account in order to submit your manuscript. The system will notify you once we receive the manuscript and have sent it out for review.

Don’t forget to sign up for email alerts through the journal homepage so you never miss the latest research.

How Educators Should Respond to Culture, Gender, and Moral Ideology on Sales Ethics Evaluations

[We’re pleased to welcome authors Youngsu Lee of California State University, Chico, Timothy Heinze of California State University, Chico, Casey Donoho of California State University, Chico, Christophe Fournier of the University of Montpellier, Ahamed A. F. M. Jalal of Binus University International, David Cohen of Lincoln University, and Eike Hennebichler of the University of Montpellier. They recently published an article in the Journal of Marketing Education entitled “An International Study of Culture, Gender, and Moral Ideology on Sales Ethics Evaluations: How Should Educators Respond?” which is currently free to read for a limited time. Below, Dr. Heinze reflects on the motivations for conducting this research:]

JME(D)_72ppiRGB_powerpoint

My motivation for working on “An International Study of Culture, Gender, and Moral Ideology on Sales Ethics Evaluations: How Should Educators Respond?” fundamentally centered on the need to facilitate ethical orientations and practices in sales. Globally, sales is one of the most difficult positions for hiring managers to fill. However, though professional sales positions are readily available and offer lucrative financial and lifestyle benefits, many college students do not desire sales careers. This fact is of particular concern in marketing where the majority of students must begin their professional careers in sales. Therefore, the paper is an attempt to better understand the global nature of sales ethics. If we can understand the drivers behind ethical sensitivity and decision making in sales, we can better develop pedagogical tools to effectively teach sales ethics.

The most challenging aspect of the research involved coordinating data collection across five countries. However, the international nature of the study also provided several interesting and unexpected findings. For example, we found that cultural traditionalism doesn’t necessarily yield increased ethical sensitivity. Indonesia is technically more traditional than the U.S., but Indonesian respondents were not as ethically sensitive to sales improprieties. This finding aligned with prior research which uncovered that collectivistic societies such as Indonesia tend to have lower levels of ethical sensitivity.

Another interesting finding dealt with gender and ethical sensitivity. Females were more ethically sensitive in all countries, save Germany (where females and males shared similar sensitivity levels). Germany was the most secular country studied, and the disappearance of traditional gender roles in secular societies might influence sensitivity levels.

Finally, the research confirmed that moral ideologies impact ethical sensitivity. Individuals who subscribe to absolutist ideologies (high idealism/low relativism) are the most sensitive to ethical misconduct in sales situations.


Stay up-to-date with the latest research from the Journal of Marketing Education and sign up for email alerts today through the homepage!

 

Dealing with Learning–Credibility Tension

[We’re pleased to welcome authors Alaric Bourgoin and Jean-François Harvey of HEC Montréal, Canada, who recently published the article, “Professional image under threat: Dealing with learning–credibility tension,” in Human Relations. Below they discuss the results and implications of their research.]

huma_71_2.coverHow does one learn and build credibility simultaneously? Today’s professionals often find themselves entering new organisations where they are expected to bring their knowledge to bear on shifting situations. Entering new settings generates uncertainty because knowledge is socially embedded and context-dependent, such that it may not be possible to simply transfer knowledge developed in a previous context and apply it to a new one. Despite this difficulty, professionals must project an image of competence to be regarded as experts, and preclude sceptical clients from withdrawing completely. Faced with an uncertain new setting, they may encounter a conflict between their professional image and their ability to fulfil their role. This challenge is faced by an increasing number of professionals and managers alike, who are no longer seeking linear careers and instead move in and out of complex projects on a regular basis.

To address this puzzle, Professors Alaric Bourgoin and Jean-François Harvey draw on data from 21 months of participant observation during consulting assignments, and interviews with 79 management consultants. They adopted an original method – auto-ethnography with an insider-outsider research team – insofar that Bourgoin worked as a consultant to collect first-hand data for almost two years, which was regularly discussed and analysed with Harvey. They gained an unparalleled access to the minutiae of the work practices and inner feelings of consultants repeatedly adjusting to new settings under high-pressure conditions from their clients.

The main finding of this research is the construct that Bourgoin and Harvey call “learning–credibility tension” – a discrepancy between a newcomer position that requires professionals to learn, and a role-based image that requires professionals to maintain their credibility as experts. The authors discovered that this tension is a salient and costly issue for professionals during organisational entry. Specifically, they find that consultants experience three threats to their professional image during interactions with clients: competency, acceptance, and productive threats. Whereas most recruits are given time for socialisation, and granted some trial-and-error leeway in the process, the high costs of consulting services ratchets up clients’ expectations with respect to practitioners’ capacity to solve complex problems, fit in the sociopolitical context of their firm, and create value for money within a few days through the assignment.

While consultants emphasise the pressures of learning–credibility tension, they also use three tactics to mitigate it: (1) crafting relevance, (2) crafting resonance and (3) crafting substance. Such tactics include back- and front-stage behaviour and allow professionals to keep face as experts while seeking the information they require to adjust to new settings. If performed successfully, the tactics allow consultants to reduce the anxiety associated with learning–credibility tension, and support their relationship with clients.

The study builds new theory in socialisation by bridging information needs and image concerns, revealing original tactics that are highly relevant to a wide variety of people. It also contributes to substantive debates on management consulting by relating insights from the sociology of professions to contemporary knowledge workers and overturning the critique of consultants as professionals of persuasion.

You can read  Professional image under threat: Dealing with learning–credibility tension from Human Relations free until the end of March by clicking here.

Want to stay current on all of the latest research published by Human RelationsSign up for email alerts so you never miss new research.

Call for Proposals: Family Business Review Special Issue

Make an impact on Family Business Research and submit a special issues proposal to the Family Business Review!

fbra_30_2.coverFamily Business Review (FBR) a refereed journal published quarterly since 1988, is a scholarly publication devoted exclusively to exploration of the dynamics of family-controlled enterprise, including firms ranging in size from the very large to the relatively small.

For more details click here.

Manuscripts should be submitted electronically to http://mc.manuscriptcentral.com/fbr.

You will need to create an account in order to submit your manuscript. The system will notify you once we receive the manuscript and have sent it out for review.

Don’t forget to sign up for email alerts through the journal homepage so you never miss the latest research.

Submit Your Best Research on Family Business to Family Business Review!

fbra_30_2.coverFamily Business Review (FBR) a refereed journal published quarterly since 1988, is a scholarly publication devoted exclusively to the exploration of the dynamics of family-controlled enterprise, including firms ranging in size from the very large to the relatively small.

Reasons to submit to FBR:

• Rigorous peer review of your research
• Average time from submission to first decision: 30 days
• Impact Factor: 4.229
• Ranked 15 out of 121 in Business

Manuscripts should be submitted electronically to http://mc.manuscriptcentral.com/fbr.

You will need to create an account in order to submit your manuscript. The system will notify you once we receive the manuscript and have sent it out for review.

Don’t forget to sign up for email alerts through the journal homepage so you never miss the latest research.

Do You Have Research on Teaching and Learning Practice? Submit to Management Teaching Review!

MTR_cover.indd

Management Teaching Review has updated their submission guidelines. Make an impact on management teaching and submit today!

Management Teaching Review (MTR) is currently seeking manuscript submissions. MTR is committed to serving the management education community by publishing short, topically-targeted, and immediately useful resources for teaching and learning practice. The published articles and interactive platform provide a rich, collaborative space for active learning resources that foster deep student engagement and instructor excellence.

For more details click here.

Read the new submission guidelines here!

Manuscripts should be submitted electronically to http://mc.manuscriptcentral.com/mtr.

You will need to create an account in order to submit your manuscript. The system will notify you once we receive the manuscript and have sent it out for review.

Don’t forget to sign up for email alerts through the journal homepage so you never miss the latest research.