Dynamics of Power, Obedience, and Resistance in a Classroom Restructure

[We’re pleased to welcome author Todd Bridgman of Victoria University of Wellington. Dr. Bridgman recently published an article in the Management Teaching Review entitled “Overcoming Compliance to Change: Dynamics of Power, Obedience, and Resistance in a Classroom Restructure,” which is currently free to read for a limited time. Below, Dr. Bridgman discusses the genesis of this research.]

The idea for this paper came from my experiences teaching change management to undergraduates as well as graduates. In my change management classes we examine topics like ‘resistance to change’ from both mainstream and critical perspectives. Within the mainstream, resistance by employees is often portrayed as an inevitable and undesirable response to planned change that managers must attempt to overcome. Critical perspectives, in contrast, are more likely to see resistance as positive, by prompting deeper analysis of a change, or by preventing an ill-advised or unethical one. It is recognised, however, that it might be difficult for employees to voice their concerns about change, especially if implemented from the top down, because of the power relationships involved. Therefore, we should encourage students to think about how to overcome compliance to change and not just how to overcome resistance to change.

Over time I found my MBA students could relate easily to both perspectives. Most are mid-career and have experienced multiple organizational restructures. Often they viewed these structural reorganizations as change for change’s sake by new managers seeking to make their mark on the organization and demonstrate their capabilities as leaders of change. In contrast, the undergraduates, with their limited work experience, were much more likely to accept without question the mainstream assumption that change is good and resistance is bad. After all, they have spent most of their lives in educational institutions where obedience to authority figures is encouraged, rewarded and valued.

To address this, I created a classroom activity that simulates an organizational restructure, requiring students to reorganize themselves around the room multiple times on the order of the instructor. I ask them to change their seating position in the room and once they have complied I ask them to change again. And I keeping moving them until they refuse.

The paper gives instructions for running the activity and a list of questions that can be used to debrief the exercise with students, together with their likely responses. The debrief gets them to reflect on their compliance and resistance, group dynamics that influenced their behavior and the ethical issues raised. It concludes with a discussion on how organisations can foster cultures that encourage employees to speak up.

I’ve used this activity successfully for more than 10 years and have received positive feedback on it from students. So I decided to write the paper to share my experience with other management educators.

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Crowdfunding and Museums: A Field Trip Exemplar in the United Kingdom

[Professors Miriam Isabella Cavalcanti Junqueira and Allan Discua Cruz of Lancaster University Management School recently published an article in the Entrepreneurship Education and Pedagogy which is entitled “Crowdfunding and Museums: A Field Trip Exemplar in the United Kingdom.” We are pleased to welcome them as contributors and excited to announce that the case study will be free to access on our site for a limited time. Below they reveal the development and impact of this research.]

This crowdfunding and field trip exemplar grew out of an attempt to integrate intra and extra classroom activities that could accentuate innovative trends in entrepreneurship teaching bridging theory and real-life applications. Additional considerations included galvanizing engagement of an international and multidisciplinary classroom environment. In the past few years, new financial trends and challenges have infiltrated the creative industries. This has prompted organizations to examine new funding models that could promote innovative artistic representations as well as entrepreneurial opportunities to increase visibility and the commercialization of enhanced consumer experiences including new products and services. We chose a local museum in the Northwest region of the United Kingdom to provide a social context for a museum field trip. The purpose of the field trip was to inform students on the challenges these types of organizations face. Additionally, students were asked to help this museum devise a crowdfunding campaign for a specific project that could publicize the museums offerings and heighten its online presence. Reward-based crowdfunding is a popular crowdfunding model used in the creative industries. It is also one of the latest tools in entrepreneurial finance that could help a creative organization to develop innovative projects with the potential to engage stakeholders’ communities, local businesses and government entities. We hope that our learning activity will be an inspiration to new scholars and educators to research the development of educational experiences that can facilitate the understanding of theoretical perspectives coupled with the simulation of ‘real world ‘experiences.

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Call for Editor: World Futures Review

World Futures Review invites applications for the Editorship of the Journal.

spwfr_9_1_72ppiRGB_150pixwWorld Futures Review (WFR) is the top forum for all who are professionally involved in exploring trends and alternatives for society. This dynamic quarterly publication offers valuable insight on the theoretical, research and practical issues confronting those interested in futures research. Along with interviews with leading futures practitioners, WFR publishes important new foresight literature.

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Call for Editor: Journal of Applied Behavioral Science

The NTL Institute invites applications for the Editorship of the Journal of Applied Behavioral Science.

The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science isJABS_72ppiRGB_powerpoint the leading international journal on the effects of evolutionary and planned change. Founded and sponsored by the NTL Institute, the Journal is continually breaking ground in its exploration of group dynamics, organization development, and social change.

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Call for Papers: Special Issue on Engineering Entrepreneurship Education

EEX_72ppiRGB_powerpointEntrepreneurship Education and Pedagogy will be publishing a special issue on Engineering Entrepreneurship Education! Articles should focus on learning innovations and research related to the integration of content intended to impact engineering students’ understanding of and experience with entrepreneurship. Submit your manuscript today.

Entrepreneurship Education and Pedagogy (EEP) is USASBE’s peer-reviewed opportunity for entrepreneurship educators to both publish their scholarship and showcase their practice. EE&P aims to provide a forum for the dissemination of research, teaching cases, and learning innovations focused on educating the next generation of entrepreneurs.

For more details click here.

Manuscripts should be submitted electronically to http://mc.manuscriptcentral.com/eex.

You will need to create an account in order to submit your manuscript. The system will notify you once we receive the manuscript and have sent it out for review.

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70-20-10 and the Dominance of Informal Learning

[We’re pleased to welcome author Dr. Alan Clardy of Towson University. Dr. Clardy recently published an article in the Human Resource and Development Review entitled “70-20-10 and the Dominance of Informal Learning: A Fact in Search of Evidence,” which is currently free to read for a limited time. Below, Dr. Clardy reflects on the inspiration for conducting this research:]


What motivated you to pursue this research?

I reviewed the recent book “Using Experience to Develop Leadership Talent” for Personnel Psychology a few years ago. In that book, mention was made in an off-handed factual way at several points to a 70-20-10 rule. I had two reactions: I wasn’t that familiar with that rule, and I started to wonder where the original data could be found. I found myself wanting to see the original studies but the more I looked, the more disappointed I became. Then I wanted to discover where this 70-20-10 “fact” really came from.

What has been the most challenging aspect of conducting your research? Were there any surprising findings?

As I note my article, the literature on this matter is scattered and not particularly integrated. So back-tracking through citations, then finding the original sources became a chore at times. Perhaps the biggest challenge was looking through these original studies to see if they mentioned at 70% rule and/or presented any data for a 70% rule.

In what ways is your research innovative, and how do you think it will impact the field?

It was not uniquely innovative but doing a search for root data in a dispersed literature is somewhat distinctive. Even though I’m sure I did not identify every instance in which a 70-20-10 rule has been noted, I am pleased that I was able to identify as much as I did and then to organize and report it in a more coherent and connected manner.

My academic grounding in HRD has a strong foundation in Industrial and Organizational Psychology. Interestingly, the chapters on employee training and development in all standard I/O textbooks and, as I’m recalling, texts on Organization Behavior do not cover, much less mention informal learning experiences. I/O texts, for example, focus almost exclusively on formal training. It would be a mistake to conclude from my paper that I disagree with the notion that much learning about job and work occurs “informally”. Rather, there is a great deal of evidence that much learning does occur “informally”. What I was objecting to was the dogmatic and unqualified assertion that 70% of job/work of all learning happens informally. So, if my article could help generate coverage of “informal” learning in I/O and OB texts, I think that would be a beneficial impact on all of these fields. I do call for more research on how to structure various kinds of “informal” learning venues to improve their effectiveness; seeing more of that would also be a positive impact.

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Journal of Service Research Call for Papers: Customer Engagement through Automated Service Interactions

02JSR13_Covers.inddMake an impact on service research and submit to the Journal of Service Research’s upcoming Special Issue,  which will seek to explore ways in which automated service interactions engage customers and create customer and firm value!

Journal of Service Research (JSR), peer-reviewed and published quarterly, is widely considered the world’s leading service research journal. It is a must read to keep up with the latest in service research. Practical and readable, JSR offers the necessary knowledge and tools to cope with an increasingly service-based economy. JSR features articles by the world’s leading service experts, from both academia and the business world.

For more details click here.

Manuscripts should be submitted electronically to http://mc.manuscriptcentral.com/jsr.

You will need to create an account in order to submit your manuscript. The system will notify you once we receive the manuscript and have sent it out for review.

Don’t forget to sign up for email alerts through the journal homepage so you never miss the latest research.