Explore this article from The Journal of Entrepreneurship entitled, “Examining Entrepreneurial Intention in Higher Education: An Exploratory Study of College Students in India” free for a limited time.
The societal significance of entrepreneurship goes undisputed in the contemporary world because entrepreneurship is strongly tied with the economic and social progress within a nation state. Through the creation of new activities, entrepreneurs assist a country in acquiring a position in the progressive global market by providing an edge with innovation and international collaborative initiatives. Recently, the Government of India has promoted several programmes for the development of entrepreneurship, the two notable programmes being the ‘Startup & Stand up India Initiatives’ that were launched in 2015. Though these initiatives are applauded, there is still a dearth of programmes implemented for encouraging increased entrepreneurial activity among college students, which would promote and accelerate the growth of new entrepreneurs across a variety of disciplines. In relation to this entrepreneurship education programmes, it is hoped that college students must have motivation and confidence to be proactive, creative as well as capable of facilitating the start-up business ventures for themselves.
It has been noted that the need for entrepreneurship education becomes critical because such an education will directly affect the decision-making capabilities of the students when they become managers, which in turn will lead to the reduction in the risk of failure and increasing the benefits for all. It is believed entrepreneurial education entails those activities that involve the development of skill-based knowledge, approaches, attitudes and qualities.
With the recognition of entrepreneurship as an independent discipline with definite teachable hard skills, Entrepreneurship Education has increasingly gained popularity among academics all around the world. This has stimulated the introduction of various programmes for participants from elementary to higher education. Governments have enthusiastically started developing the entrepreneurial capacity of college graduates through a range of training and awareness programmes that assist in fostering entrepreneurial behaviour as well as passion and spirit among the youth, so that they can succeed in their endeavour. Such programmes need to be speedily included and internalised in higher education curricula and teaching methodology so that interested students can be equipped with necessary potential to start business based on the disciplines that they have studied or are interested in as a practical career alternative. During the education process, the focus must be on the skill sets that are required to be imparted in accordance with the age and development of the student concerned.
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On an early December morning in 2014, Mr Shabih Haider, Director of Biogenics, sipped his coffee as he stared absentmindedly out of his office window and looked at the traffic on the main Shahrah-e-Faisal road in Karachi. His forehead creased with concern as he thought about Hamdam, Biogenics’ contraceptive (condom) brand. He looked at the reports which reflected a falling sales trend over the past ten quarters as well as falling profitability figures. The reports made him uneasy. Ever since they had launched Hamdam, the sales were far from satisfactory. The entire Hamdam team had been concentrating their efforts on the branded contraceptive to drive up the sales, but the response had been less than desired.
The problems that Hamdam was facing were not easy to overcome. The general consumer perception towards the contraceptive market was not very accepting and the social rejections had made marketing for such brands a challenging task. Nonetheless, Pakistan still offered vast potential that was too significant to be ignored.
‘Now is the time to develop the market, create awareness and find some effective solutions to communicate with the consumers,’ the diligent director thought to himself. Shabih Haider was not a man to give up easily. He believed in taking everything head-on as the key to dealing with challenging and formidable tasks. What lay ahead of him was a society which perceived the issue of family planning and use of contraceptives as a taboo topic and considered discussions regarding them as indecent and scandalous. In fact, anything related to sex was seen as unvirtuous in the society. Mr Shabih Haider, thus, was faced with the formidable task of establishing his condom brand Hamdam in the conservative Pakistani society.
Register now to read full case study on Marketing a Taboo Product and to know how Mr. Shabih Haider tackled the consumer mindset in Pakistan.
The case focuses on the marketing and promotional activities of contraceptives in an emerging market that is also culturally conservative—such as that of Pakistan. The case will explore the cultural and the societal barriers faced by the brand team during the process of designing marketing activities for contraceptives in a country where anything related to the topic of sex is a taboo and is seen as disrespectful and religiously controversial. The case highlights the challenges of marketing a contraceptive brand in such a situation, and the strategies and steps that could be employed to overcome these barriers. Moreover, the case also explores how a controversial brand/product may be established strongly in such a society using strategic marketing. Overall, the case explores marketing and branding challenges and strategies through influencing and changing consumer perceptions and behaviours regarding contraceptives in conservative societies.
Click here to read Marketing a Taboo Product: Tackling the Consumer Mind-set in Pakistan for free from the journal Asian Journal of Management Cases.
[We’re pleased to welcome authors Joachim Hüffmeier, TU Dortmund University; Alfred Zerres, University of Amsterdam; Philipp Alexander Freund, Leuphana University Lüneburg; Klaus Backhaus,University of Münster; Roman Trötschel, Leuphana University Lüneburg; and Guido Hertel, University of Münster. They recently published an article in the Journal of Management entitled “Strong or Weak Synergy? Revising the Assumption of Team-Related Advantages in Integrative Negotiations,” which is currently free to read for a limited time. Below, they briefly discuss the motivation and potential impact of this research.]
Q: What motivated you to pursue this research?
When organizations face important and complex negotiations, they usually send teams rather than individuals to the negotiation table because teams are expected to provide team-related beneficial negotiation processes (i.e., higher information processing and problem solving capabilities in teams) and, as a consequence, generate superior economic outcomes. In negotiation research, the assumption of team-related processes as important mechanism behind superior economic outcomes of teams has been theoretically proposed for 20 years – but it has never been empirically tested.
With our research we wanted to challenge this predominant view because an emerging discussion in the literature started to conceptualize integrative negotiation as a so-called “disjunctive” task. For such tasks, one competent person is sufficient to identify the correct solution, for instance by detecting the integrative potential of a negotiation (i.e., revealing that the interests of the negotiation parties are reconcilable to some degree). If integrative negotiations are in fact disjunctive tasks, the often-assumed, beneficial processes in negotiation teams might not be necessary to explain superior economic outcomes of teams as compared to individual negotiators. Instead, we argue that advantages of teams are a matter of statistical aggregation: Because in team negotiations more negotiators are present, the chance of having a very competent negotiator at the table who detects the integrative potential is simply higher than in individual negotiations.
Q: In what way is your research innovative, and how do you think it will impact the field?
Our study clarifies the process underlying team advantages in integrative negotiations, a process that has long been theoretically discussed, but has not been empirically demonstrated for more than 20 years (i.e., an individual member asking interest-related questions, which reveal the existence of the negotiation’s integrative potential). In doing so, we show that negotiating teams merely achieve weak synergy (a performance better than the average team member would achieve alone) but no strong synergy (a team performance that exceeds the performance that the best team member would achieve alone). By introducing this strong synergy comparison, we also introduce a new approach to compare team and individual-level performance to the field of negotiation research, which – as we hope – may become a new standard for future team negotiation studies. Further, we identify interest-related questions as the responsible individual-level process behind the team advantage in integrative negotiations – a behaviour that does not require a team context but can also be applied by competent individuals.
Q: What advice would you give to new scholars and incoming researchers in this particular field of study?
We think that a lot can be done to help negotiating teams to live up to their full potential. Studying how these teams can be instructed and coached to achieve strong synergy may be a good next step for new scholars in this field.
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[We’re pleased to welcome Dr. A. Onajomo Akemu and Dr. Samer Abdelnour. Dr. Akemu recently published a guest editorial in Organizational Research Methods entitled, “Confronting the Digital: Doing Ethnography in Modern Organizational Settings,” which is currently free to read for a limited time. Below, Dr. Akemu reflects on the significance of the articles featured in this issue in the context of today’s political environment:]
What motivated you to pursue this research?
We were motivated by practical challenges we faced during our ethnographic research. Work in modern organizations is undertaken using computer-mediated means, in ways that are unobservable using conventional fieldwork approaches such as interviewing and participant observation. As ethnographers, we know that the best ethnographic studies engage scholarly audiences when they paint credible, authentic accounts of organizational life. Our inability to directly observe our informants’ digitally-mediated work challenged us to reconsider how we follow the people and processes we study.
As we began exploring different ways of improving how we represent our informants’ lives, we were confronted with another challenge: what we observed in person was different than what we could “observe” digitally. We thus sought to write a paper to make sense of our experiences, to support researchers facing similar challenges, and offer suggestions for designing and undertaking fieldwork that crosses physical and digital sites.
In what ways is your research innovative, and how do you think it will impact the field?
Our research is innovative in the way we relate emergent theory about the unique attributes of digital artifacts (such as email and digital documents) to the enduring concerns of ethnography: authenticity, presence, and representation of informants. Though there is a growing body of literature on digital ethnography or netnography, we are not aware of any methods paper that explicitly problematizes the differences between informants’ physical and digital data, especially within organizations. We articulate these differences, identify two modes in which researchers can be co-present with informants, and then offer practical guidelines on how to improve authenticity in ethnographic studies. We hope that organizational ethnographers will recognize similar challenges in their own research, expand upon our proposals, and identify additional modes of being co-present with informants.
What is the most important/influential piece of scholarship you’ve read in the last year?
The most influential paper we have read in the last year is an article by Gail Whiteman and William Cooper in the Academy of Management Discoveries (Whiteman, G., & Cooper, W. H. (2016). Decoupling rape. Academy of Management Discoveries, 2(2), 115–154). We liked the paper for at least three reasons. First, Whiteman and Cooper’s article is substantively and methodologically rich—an exemplar of qualitative research and abductive theorizing. Drawing on findings from a single site ethnography, Whiteman and Cooper advance our understanding of corporate social irresponsibility as not simply located at the level of an individual firm, but collectively enabled by systemic decoupling within a field of organizational actors. Second, though the central observation of the paper—the exploitation of vulnerable populations—is heartbreaking, the authors achieve a fine balance between narrative power and theoretical abstraction. Finally, the paper is well crafted and presented. By creatively using videos, pictures and sound in the paper, Whiteman and Cooper situate themselves at the heart of the research project while richly describing their ethnographic context to the reader.
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[Dr. Lyn M. Van Swol of the University of Wisconsin–Madison and Dr. Aimée A. Kane of Duquesne University recently published an article in Small Group Research, which is entitled “Language and Group Processes: An Integrative, Interdisciplinary Review.” We are pleased to welcome them as contributors and excited to announce that the findings will be free to access on our site for a limited time. Below Dr. Van Swol writes about the inspiration behind the research, as well as additional information not included in the final publication.
This paper reviews research examining the use of language in small interacting groups and teams. We propose a model of group inputs, like status; processes and emergent states, like cohesion, influence, and innovation; and outputs, like performance and member well-being to help structure our review. We integrate this model with how language is used by groups to both reflect group inputs but also to examine how language interacts with inputs to affect group processes and create emergent states in groups, and then ultimately helps add value to the group with outputs like performance. Using cross-disciplinary research, our review finds that language is integral to how groups coordinate, interrelate, and adapt. For example, language convergence is related to increased group cohesion and group performance. Research on language in groups has been increasing, but the research is often scattered in different disciplines. This review provides theoretical scaffolding to consider language use and attempts to pull together consistent research findings to date.
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Group Communication Photo attributed to Free-Photos (CC)
California Management Review has served as a bridge of communication between academia and management practice for sixty years. The newest issue of CMR is now online to view, and features articles covering various topics such as corporate sustainability and politics, disruptive technology and big pharma, and engaging employees as social innovators.
Featured below is an video abstract for one of the articles, “CSR Needs CPR: Corporate Sustainability and Politics,” co-authored by Thomas P. Lyon (University of Michigan), Magali A. Delmas, John W. Maxwell, Pratima (Tima) Bansal, Mireille Chiroleu-Assouline, Patricia Crifo, Rodolphe Durand, Jean-Pascal Gond, Andrew King, Michael Lenox, Mike Toffel, David Vogel, and Frank Wijen (All from The Bretesche Workshop on Systemic Change). The article will be free to read for a limited time.
CMR is uniquely positioned as both a valuable outlet for top business school faculty and an indispensable resource for practitioners.
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