Read The Latest Issue of World Futures Review!

Read The Latest Issue of World Futures Review!

World Futures Review (WFR) is the top forum for all who are professionally involved in exploring trends and alternatives for society. This dynamic quarterly publication offers valuable insight on the theoretical, research and practical issues confronting those interested in futures research. Along with interviews with leading futures practitioners, WFR publishes important new foresight literature.

This issue features special research on foresight education and features research inter sectional research with history, tourism, and education. Below are some abstracts from the issue:

Teaching the Future of Technology in the History Classroom: A Case Study

This article will describe how historians can teach the future of technology. Historians need not alter their traditional methods of historical inquiry to teach the future, and indeed the history classroom is a natural site for foresight education. Historical inquiry begins with questions, and futuring similarly begins with asking the right questions. The historian seeks out evidence, and futurists as well identify drivers and blockers, considering how these drivers and blockers will interact with each other. In contrast to social scientists, historians work with imperfect or incomplete information, an apt description of the state of our evidence about the future. In a manner similar to historians, futurists interpret and draw inferences from evidence. After the research an analysis of the evidence is complete, the historian/futurist writes representations. This article will describe how I employed the historical method to teach the future of technology in a history research seminar, the results produced by the students, and ways that the study of the future can be situated in the history classroom.

Beyond Futures: Designing Futures by Educating Future Designers

The goal in design is to plan and create artifacts, including objects, communication, and services. These are meant to be used or applied in an unknown future. Therefore, design is part of a process shaping the future, yet implications are rarely considered and become blind spots. The essay is a pledge to integrate the concept of futures and foresight methododology into the education of designers to give them a better understanding of how to deal with change and uncertainty. It may increase designers’ sensitivity of the impact their work may have in the future and push their creativity by broadening their view looking at different future scenarios. The essay starts by presenting the facets that design encompasses, putting it into a historical context, and explaining some educational concepts. Ultimately, the author suggests a didactic approach that she has applied in a futures studies introductory course for graduate students of architecture at the Münster School of Architecture (MSA) in Germany. It is based mainly on practice-oriented exercises and assignments. This includes an approach based on the author’s approach to combine the generic design process used in research through design – involving the phases of analysis, projection and synthesis (APS) – with the concept of futures and tools used in foresight methodology.

Reflective Thoughts on Teaching the Future of Tourism

This reflective paper considers how Dr. Ian Yeoman teaches futures studies and scenario planning to tourism students across several undergraduate and postgraduate degree programs at Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand. It is based on his teaching philosophy of visualization, authenticity, problem-based learning, scaffolding, and his understanding of how students negotiate their own learning. The paper examines the approach taken in three papers, where Yeoman is the primary lecturer. As part of the bachelor of tourism management degree, two papers are taught. TOUR104 is a first-year introductory paper addressing how the drivers and trends in the macro-environment influence tourism from a political, economic, social, technology, and environmental perspective. TOUR301 is a third-year paper that aims to help students develop the skills and knowledge necessary to understand and critically analyze tourism public policy, planning, and processes primarily within New Zealand. TOUR413 is a scenario planning paper, applied in a tourism context and taught to students in postgraduate programs. The contribution this paper makes is in its demonstration of the link between teaching philosophy and student learning, the challenges students encounter with futures thinking in a problem-based learning environment and the evolution of the papers.

To submit to the journal click here!

Interested in being involved with the journal? Check out the most recent Call for Editor!

Book Review: Beeronomics: How beer explains the world

Interested in how the economics of alcohol, specifically beer, can explain the world? Read the latest book review from the American Economist by Dr. W. Ken Farr titled:  Book Review: Beeronomics: How beer explains the world, by Swinnen, J. & Briski, D.

For more updates check out the journal website and sign up for notifications!

New Podcast from the Journal of Management Education!

We are pleased to feature a new podcast from the Journal of Management Education entitled Ethical Issues in Experiential Learning with participants Dr. Amy Kenworth and Dr. David L. Bradford.

Please click here to listen to the podcast directly, where they discuss the significance of Dr. Bradford’s article “Ethical Issues in Experiential Learning.”

Amy L. Kenworthy (Ph.D. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill) is a Professor of Management and the Director of the Centre for Applied Research in Learning, Engagement, Andragogy and Pedagogy (LEAP) at Bond. She has been a service-learning practitioner and author for over 18 years and has served as guest editor for special issues on service-learning in the Academy of Management Learning & Education, the International Journal of Case Method Research & Application, the Journal of Management Education and the International Journal of Organizational Analysis. She has published numerous articles in leading academic journals including the Journal of Applied Psychology, the Journal of Business Ethics and the Journal of Management Inquiry.

David L. Bradford is the Eugene O’Kelly II Emeritus Senior Lecturer in Leadership at the Graduate School of Business, Stanford University. He received his B.A. in Psychology from Oberlin College in 1960 and Ph.D. in Social Psychology from the University of Michigan in 1966. After graduation, he was Assistant Professor in the Department of Psychology at the University of Wisconsin-Madison from 1966-1969. In 1969, he came to Stanford University to join the Graduate School of Business. His research and consulting has focused on the question “what does it take for individuals and teams to achieve high performance?” This has led to developing new approaches to leadership that release the potential within organizations. In addition to numerous articles, he is co-author (with Allan R. Cohen) of the best selling books Managing for Excellence: The Guide to Developing High Performance in Contemporary Organizations (1984), Influence Without Authority (1990, revised 2005) and Power Up; Transforming Organizations Through Shared Leadership (1998). (All published by John Wiley & Sons.) He co-authored (with W.W. Burke) Reinventing Organization Development (2005; published by Pfeiffer/Wiley). He has helped develop three executive training programs in conjunction with Wilson Learning Corporation, ODI, and Ninth House. Dr. Bradford has lectured at and consulted for a range of organizations in the private sector including Frito-Lay, Hewlett-Packard, IBM, Levi Strauss & Co., McKinsey & Co. Raychem, Starbucks, Genentech, as well as in such not-for-profit organizations as The Asian Art Museum of San Francisco, The Art Gallery of Ontario, The Detroit Institute of Art, The Getty Museum, and The Whitney Museum of American Art.

For more from the journal click here!

What Do Unions Do for Mothers?

Tae-Youn Park of Vanderbilt University, Eun-Suk Lee of Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, and John W. Budd of the University of Minnesota recently published in article in the ILR Review entitled, “What Do Unions Do for Mothers? Paid Maternity Leave Use and the Multifaceted Roles of Labor Unions,” which is free to read for a limited time. Below they discuss the motivations and challenges of this research.

Paid parental leave is an important issue around the globe. In countries with long histories of universal maternity leave, there is concern with usage rates and with extending this to fathers. In the United States—the lone industrialized country without universal paid leave for new parents (though there are now a very small number of state-based programs and many employer-provided plans)—the central debate is over whether and how to enact such a policy. But a key motivating fact for this research is that simply enacting or offering a paid parental leave plan does not automatically mean that workers will take a leave. So we need to better understand the factors that prevent workers from taking a leave, and ways to reduce these barriers.

One of the challenges with research into these issues, however, is that the decision to take a leave is very complex. So in this project we focus on one important institution: labor unions. Labor unions are popularly associated with higher wages and restrictive work rules, but in reality unions can have many effects in the workplace. We derive a model in which a worker’s decision to take a leave is broken down into four steps: 1) the policy needs to be available, 2) if available, the worker needs to be aware of it, 3) given awareness, the worker needs to believe she can afford to take a leave, and 4) even if affordable, the worker needs to have implicit or explicit assurances that potential negative consequences that make the leave unattractive are unlikely. Based on broad research on what unions do, we discuss how unions have the potential to positively affect all four of these key steps.

To empirically analyze at least part of this framework, we analyze 15 years of data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97), which is a nationally-representative sample. We are only able to analyze mothers’ decisions to take a paid maternity leave, and our final data set has 27,472 observations from 4,108 female workers across a 15-year period. Ultimately we find that union-represented workers are at least 17 percent more likely to use paid maternity leave than comparable nonunion workers, and that unions facilitate this leave-taking through the availability, awareness, and affordability channels. We also find that mothers who take a paid maternity leave experience a post-leave penalty such that their wage growth is slower when compared to those who did not take a leave. Surprisingly, we did not find that labor unions lessen this penalty. We hope this theorizing and these results spur others to continue to deepen our understanding of the barriers that prevent new parents from taking a paid leave, and help identify ways to reduce these barriers.

Keep in contact with the authors by reaching out to them on twitter: @JohnWBudd!

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The Influence of Supervisors on Employee Performance in Family Firms

[We’re pleased to welcome authors Benjamin D. McLarty, James M. Vardaman, and Tim Barnett of Mississippi State University. They recently published an article in Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice entitled “Congruence in Exchange: The Influence of Supervisors on Employee Performance in Family Firms,” which is currently free to read for a limited time. Below, they briefly describe the motivation and impact of their research]

Research on family firms predominantly takes place at the firm-level. Findings suggest that family firms prioritize specific non-economic goals labeled socio-emotional wealth, and that emphasizing socio-emotional wealth drives many strategic decisions in family firms. We were motivated to pursue this research because, although we knew socio-emotional wealth affects how family firms behave, we wanted to know how people in family firms behaved. Specifically, we wanted to explore how the importance that supervisors placed on socio-emotional wealth could impact their employees’ job performance as well as employees’ commitment to the family firm. Here, we reasoned that employees could perceive their supervisors differently based on whether they were a member of the family firm, and if they embraced the firm’s socio-emotional wealth goals. When these factors were in congruence, we surmised that employees would translate their commitment to the family firm into greater job performance (both task and citizenship behavior). When they perceived a lack of congruence in their supervisor, we argue that decreased performance would occur based on a reduced sense of genuineness in the social exchange relationship with their supervisor. Our results supported our hypothesizing and demonstrate that employees seek supervisors in family firms who accurately represent their true interests—i.e., if they are family members they should support the family’s goals, if they are not, they should not.

Our research is innovative in that we take a multi-pronged approach and test a three-way interaction to determine how performance will be impacted by commitment, supervisor familial status, and socio-emotional wealth importance all in concert. Testing three-ways effects is less common in family firm research and provides a unique means for understanding how these factors influence the family firm.

We hope that our work encourages future researchers to continue to find ways to examine other factors at the individual level that influences family firm outcomes. Only through the continued pursuit of future research at multiple levels within the family firm can we come to a better understanding of why the family firm is the unique environment that it is.

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Read the Latest Issue of the Journal of Marketing!

We are excited to announce a new issue of the Journal of Marketing!

The Journal of Marketing (JM) develops and disseminates knowledge about real-world marketing questions relevant to scholars, educators, managers, consumers, policy makers and other societal stakeholders. It is the premier outlet for substantive research in marketing. Since its founding in 1936, JM has played a significant role in shaping the content and boundaries of the marketing discipline.

The newest issue features fascinating research ranging from business-to- government relations to TV Advertising. Here are the abstracts of a few of these articles:

Does a Customer on the Board of Directors Affect Business-to-Business Firm Performance?

The authors hypothesize that customer presence in the boardroom of business-to-business (B2B) firms brings customer orientation and customer knowledge to the board of directors and thereby enhances B2B firm performance. Using an objective measure of customer presence in the boardroom and a sample of 329 B2B firms over a nine-year period, the authors find support for this hypothesis. Moreover, relying on the resource-based view, they hypothesize that the performance benefit of customers in the boardroom is contingent on the value, rarity, inimitability, and organizational fit of customer resources. Specifically, they find that a customer on the board is more effective when demand uncertainty is high but is less effective when the firm is highly diversified. Moreover, a board member who is an independent director of the customer firm is less effective than a board member who is an executive at the customer firm. The authors also find that research and development intensity partially mediates the relationship between customer presence on the board and firm performance.

Does It Pay to Be Real? Understanding Authenticity in TV Advertising

Marketing managers and creatives alike believe that authenticity is an essential element for effective advertising. However, no common understanding of authenticity in advertising exists, and empirical knowledge about its impact on consumer behavior is limited. In this study, the authors use a comprehensive literature review and qualitative studies to identify four dimensions of authenticity in an advertising context. By examining 323 television ads across 67 brands and four years, they investigate these dimensions’ effects on the sales performance of advertised products. Because the impact of authenticity may depend on brand or product characteristics, the authors also analyze how these effects vary with brand size or across hedonic and utilitarian products. The results suggest that authenticity influences consumer behavior in a more nuanced manner than previously recognized. For instance, whereas an ad congruent with the brand’s essence has a positive effect on sales in most cases, an overly honest advertising message can actually hurt performance; the latter is true especially for hedonic products, for which consumers rely more on subjective information when making purchase decisions.

Uncle Sam Rising: Performance Implications of Business-to-Government Relationships

This article uses multimethod approaches to develop a conceptual foundation for and empirical evidence of the performance implications of business-to-government (B2G) relationships. In-depth interviews reveal unique characteristics that differentiate B2G exchanges from commercial exchanges (e.g., procurement mission; regulations and oversight; scale, scope, and planning horizon) and highlight the resultant cost–benefit trade-offs for firms in this environment. Empirical longitudinal analyses of secondary data show that a firm’s government customer emphasis (firm revenue dependence on B2G relationships) exerts a positive nonlinear effect on firm value but also increases firm risk (idiosyncratic and systematic). Government customer breadth and depth are two critical customer portfolio characteristics that moderate these effects. High government customer breadth creates more costs associated with an increasing government customer emphasis, mitigating the positive nonlinear effect on firm value. However, breadth provides diversification benefits that alleviate the increase in idiosyncratic risk that comes with greater government customer emphasis. Deep B2G relationships give firms key customer domain knowledge and insights, which help counteract the increased idiosyncratic and systematic risks of government customer emphasis. The authors discuss the implications for marketing theory and practice.

Read the entire issue here!

To submit to the journal click here!

The Impact of Eco-Innovation on Performance Through the Measurement of Financial Resources and Green Patents

[We’re pleased to welcome authors Luz María Marín-Vinuesa of the University of La Rioja, Sabina Scarpellini of the University of Zaragoza, Pilar Portillo-Tarragona of the University of Zaragoza , and José M. Moneva
of the University of Zaragoza. They recently published an article in Organization & Environment entitled “The Impact of Eco-Innovation on Performance Through the Measurement of Financial Resources and Green Patents,” which is currently free to read for a limited time. Below, they reflect on the contribution of their research:]

The paper contributes to the academic knowledge about eco-innovation in firms, its measurement and decision-making processes. This study tries to deepen the specific knowledge of the internal factors of eco-innovative companies that could have an impact on their financial performance, within the RBV framework. The objective is to define if financial resources are part of the range of those strategic, unique and inimitable resources that influence the eco-innovation level of a company, and therefore its performance.

Eco-innovation is positively related to the amount of financial resources allocated to the eco-innovative activity. A positive relationship between the cost saving obtained through eco- investments and the eco-innovation level in firms is also demonstrated. Results suggest that there is a positive relation between the level of eco-innovation performed by companies and their financial performance, which is an empirical contribution regarding the debate about the specific impact of eco-innovation.

The relevance of specific financial resources for eco-innovation points out new lines of inquire about their different dimensions, such as their quality, availability and (public nature) other qualitative aspects, and the influence of the firms’ capabilities in the efficient allocation of these resources to undertake investments in eco-innovation.

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