Celebrate Labor Day with ILRReview!

September 1, 2014 by

gears-94220_640In celebration of Labor Day, we are pleased to provide you with the latest issue of ILRReview! This Special Issue on International Comparisons of Working Times includes articles on topics such as the 35-hour work week in France, the effect of the Great Recession on working times in Germany, work-life conflict in the lives of retail employees and more. The issue is available to read online for free for the next 30 days. You can access the Table of Contents by clicking here.

The introduction to the Special Issue entitled “Working-Time Configurations: A Framework for Analyzing Diversity across Countries” was written by Peter Berg of Michigan State University, Gerhard Bosch of the University Duisburg-essen, and Jean Charest of the University of Montreal.

When one looks beyond the United States, it becomes clear that very different realities about working time exist. Some emerging economies, such as Singapore and China, are not deregulating working time but are instead seeking greater regulation of the standard working week to protect their workers from extreme working hours and to introduce more efficient forms of work organization (Lee, McCann, and Messenger 2007; also see Cao and Rubin’s article in this issue). In other developed countries, standard working hours haveILR_72ppiRGB_powerpoint been reduced to less than 40 hours (Cabrita and Galli da Bino 2013); for example, France established a statutory workweek of 35 hours in 2000. In many European countries, workers possess the legal right to request variable work hours. Workers also have more choice across short working-time practices that provide prorated benefits and equal pay per hour. In some European countries, workers are able to take paid and unpaid leaves during certain phases of their work lives, and labor unions and employers alter working-time practices through negotiation. Countries with lower wage inequality and a smaller low-wage sector than the United States are associated with shorter working hours for workers across the income distribution (Bell and Freeman 2001). The main reason for this is the reduced pressure on low-wage workers to work more hours and the higher marginal tax rates for increasing work hours in countries with low wage inequality (Bosch and Lehndorff 2001).

The articles in this issue reflect the range of realities. They highlight the diversity of working-time practices across countries and the implications of these practices for workers and firms. The articles focus on a number of countries and are in some cases explicitly comparative. They examine a number of working-time practices including weekly working hours, flexible work schedules, and part-time work. In their analyses, the authors show how the institutional context can have differential effects on working-time practices and working-time outcomes. For example, annualized hours contracts and working-time accounts can be positive forms of flexibility for workers to vary work hours and to take time off when they need it. These practices, however, can also provide a means to shift risk to employees when they lack control over their schedules and cannot access time banked in their accounts.

Click here to read “Working-Time Configurations: A Framework for Analyzing Diversity across Countries” and here to access the Table of Contents of ILRReview‘s July issue. Want to get all the latest from ILRReview sent directly to your inbox? Click here to sign up for e-alerts!

Using Creativity and Beauty to Find Solutions

August 29, 2014 by

boat-in-lake-1368014-mThe news isn’t always uplifting: declining home price growth, sinking big business profits, and rising gas prices can make for an economy that is less than reassuring. How can we even start to fix it? According to Nancy Adler there is hope if we allow our passions to lead us to creative solutions and we strive towards a sense of beauty in our leadership.

You can watch the video of Nancy Adler speaking on this topic by clicking here. Nancy Adler also published a paper on this topic entitled “Leading Beautifully: The Creative Economy and Beyond” in Journal of Management Inquiry.

The abstract:

“These times are riven with anxiety and uncertainty” asserts John O’Donohue.1 “In the hearts of people some natural ease has been broken. . . . Our trust in the future JMI_72ppiRGB_powerpointhas lost its innocence. We know now that anything can happen. . . . The traditional structures of shelter are shaking, their foundations revealed to be no longer stone but sand. We are suddenly thrown back on ourselves. At first, it sounds completely naïve to suggest that now might be the time to invoke beauty. Yet this is exactly what . . . [we claim]. Why? Because there is nowhere else to turn and we are desperate; furthermore, it is because we have so disastrously neglected the Beautiful that we now find ourselves in such a terrible crisis.”2

Twenty-first century society yearns for a leadership of possibility, a leadership based more on hope, aspiration, innovation, and beauty than on the replication of historical patterns of constrained pragmatism. Luckily, such a leadership is possible today. For the first time in history, leaders can work backward from their aspirations and imagination rather than forward from the past.3 “The gap between what people can imagine and what they can accomplish has never been smaller.”4

Responding to the challenges and yearnings of the twenty-first century demands anticipatory creativity. Designing options worthy of implementation calls for levels of inspiration, creativity, and a passionate commitment to beauty that, until recently, have been more the province of artists and artistic processes than the domain of most managers. The time is right for the artistic imagination of each of us to co-create the leadership that the world most needs and deserves.

The article “Leading Beautifully: The Creative Economy and Beyond” from Journal of Management Inquiry can be read for free by clicking here. Want to know about all the latest news and research like this from Journal of Management Inquiry? Click here to sign up for e-alerts!

Can a Business Be Socially Responsible and Still Make a Profit?

August 28, 2014 by

businessman-holding-crystal-globe-1281812-mAccording to Thompson Reuters, sustainability in business once meant a company covering its operating costs with profits. These days that definition has transformed into a term that refers to a business making decisions that benefit society. But is it possible for an organization to function successfully by adapting a blend of these doctrines? Nardia Haigh and Andrew J. Hoffman explore this idea in their article “The New Heretics: Hybrid Organizations and the Challenges They Present to Corporate Sustainability” from Organization and Environment.

The abstract:

Corporate sustainability has become mainstream; reaching into all areas of business management. Yet despite this progress, oae coverlarge-scale social and ecological issues continue to worsen. In this article, we examine how corporate sustainability has been enacted as a concept that supports the dominant beliefs of strategic management rather than challenging them to shift business beyond the unsustainable status quo. Against this backdrop, we consider how hybrid organizations (organizations at the interface between for-profit and nonprofit sectors that address social and ecological issues) are operating at odds with beliefs embedded in strategic management and corporate sustainability literatures. We offer six propositions that define hybrid organizations based on challenges they present to the beliefs embedded in these literatures and position them as new heretics of strategic management and corporate sustainability orthodoxy. We conclude with the implications of this heretical force for theory and suggest directions for future research.

“The New Heretics: Hybrid Organizations and the Challenges They Present to Corporate Sustainability” from Organization and Environment can be read for free by clicking here. Want to know about all the latest news and research from Organization and Environment? Click here to sign up for e-alerts!

Award Winning Journal of Management Article on Capitol Hill

August 27, 2014 by

 “Age Stereotypes in the Workplace: Common Stereotypes, Moderators, and Future Directions,” by Richard A. Posthuma of the University of Texas at El Paso and Michael A. Campion of Purdue University, won Journal of Management‘s 2014 Best Paper Award. Dr. Campion recently provided us with some insight on both the creation and impact of the article:

The paper was originally written because of an age discrimination lawsuit for which I was the expert witness. I asked Rick (former student of mine and frequent coauthor) to help write it up. Two related things happened as a result:

jom cover1. I was invited to give “testimony” to the Commissioners of the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) on research on age stereotypes in employment. They were in the process of writing new guidelines on the enforcement of age discrimination guidelines. It was sort of like giving testimony in congress – very formal affair.

2. The article was cited in the Federal Register (government’s official publication outlet) by the EEOC in their ruling (guidelines) called “Disparate Impact and Reasonable Factors Other Than Age Under the Age Discrimination in Employment Act.”

The article has also helped my consulting in age court cases or work for the EEOC.

“Age Stereotypes in the Workplace: Common Stereotypes, Moderators, and Future Directions” can be read for free from Journal of Management by clicking here. Want to know about all the latest news and research from Journal of Management? Click here to sign up for e-alerts!

Announcing the 2013 Journal of Service Research Award Winners!

August 26, 2014 by

Congratulations to Crina O. Tarasi, Ruth N. Bolton, Anders Gustafsson and Beth A. Walker, winners of the silver-trophy-841885-m2013 Best Article Award from Journal of Service Research! Their award-winning article entitled “Relationship Characteristics and Cash Flow Variability: Implications for Satisfaction, Loyalty, and Customer Portfolio Management” appeared in the May 2013 issue of Journal of Service Research and can be read online for free for the next 30 days by clicking here!

The abstract:

Service firms seek customers with high revenues, profits, or lifetime value. However, they frequently ignore variations in consumption that lead to cash flow variability and adversely influence service operations and financial performance. This study shows that variation in individual customers’ consumption or spending on services can be decreased in JSR coverways that are actionable by most managers, without decreasing revenues or profits. First, customer satisfaction has a “double-whammy” effect: lower cash flow variability and higher cash flow levels. This finding is important because firms can increase satisfaction in many ways. Second, customers who participate in loyalty programs have more variable cash flows, but not higher average cash flows. Hence, firms should design loyalty programs to improve customer satisfaction or intangible benefits (e.g., membership recognition), rather than offering economic incentives. Third, customers who purchase many different offerings, or allocate a large share of their purchases to the firm, have higher cash flow variability and higher average cash flows. Firms can optimize the customer portfolio by combining customers with high variability with customers who have different, offsetting cash flow patterns. Fourth, personal characteristics, such as age and income, also influence cash flow variability. Empirical findings are robust across two settings: telecommunications and financial services. The study describes sensitivity analyses of how different service and relationship marketing strategies influence a firm’s business outcomes. The article concludes with insights into how to integrate service management principles, which emphasize consistency or low variability in processes, with customer relationship management principles that emphasize growing relationships and cash flows.

We’re also pleased to honor Seigyoung Auh of Thunderbird School of Global Management who is the recipient of the 2013 Journal of Service Research Best Reviewer Award!

Want to know about all the latest news and research from Journal of Service Research? Click here to sign up for e-alerts!

The September Issue of Administrative Science Quarterly is Now Online!

August 25, 2014 by

The September issue of Administrative Science Quarterly is now available and can be read online for free for the next 30 days. This issue offers a range of astute articles on organizational studies as well as insightful book reviews.

The lead article entitled “Beyond Occupational Differences: The Importance of Cross-cutting Demographics and Dyadic Toolkits for Collaboration in a U.S. Hospital” was authored by Julia DiBenigno and Katherine C. Kellogg both of MIT Sloan School of Management. You can read the abstract here:

ASQ_v59n3_Sept2014_cover.inddWe use data from a 12-month ethnographic study of two medical-surgical units in a U.S. hospital to examine how members from different occupations can collaborate with one another in their daily work despite differences in status, shared meanings, and expertise across occupational groups, which previous work has shown to create difficulties. In our study, nurses and patient care technicians (PCTs) on both hospital units faced these same occupational differences, served the same patient population, worked under the same management and organizational structure, and had the same pressures, goals, and organizational collaboration tools available to them. But nurses and PCTs on one unit successfully collaborated while those on the other did not. We demonstrate that a social structure characterized by cross-cutting demographics between occupational groups—in which occupational membership is uncorrelated with demographic group membership—can loosen attachment to the occupational identity and status order. This allows members of cross-occupational dyads, in our case nurses and PCTs, to draw on other shared social identities, such as shared race, age, or immigration status, in their interactions. Drawing on a shared social identity at the dyad level provided members with a “dyadic toolkit” of alternative, non-occupational expertise, shared meanings, status rules, and emotional scripts that facilitated collaboration across occupational differences and improved patient care.

Click here to access the Table of Contents of the September issue of Administrative Science Quarterly. Want to know about all the latest from Administrative Science Quarterly? Click here to sign up for e-alerts!

Can Critical Thinking Be Taught in Business School?

August 22, 2014 by

In her editorial of the September issue of Business and Professional Communication Quarterly, Melinda Knight explains,

There is universal agreement among educators in the academy and managers in the workplace that critical thinking writing-on-laptop-1197801-mskills are essential for success at all levels. Over a century ago, the American sociologist William Graham Sumner defined what we now call critical thinking as “the examination and test of propositions of any kind which are offered for acceptance, in order to find out whether they correspond to reality or not.” He further argued that “it is our only guarantee against delusion, deception, superstition, and misapprehension of ourselves and our earthly circumstances,” and education “teaches us to act by judgment” (Sumner, 1906, pp. 632-633).

Hiring managers have long recognized how important critical thinking is in their talent searches. Wall Street Journal reporter Marisa Taylor (2010) argued that “while the ability to think critically is, well, critical in the workplace, employers have long complained that many of the young college graduates they hire seem to lack this skill.”

But what can be changed to help improve the critical thinking skills of college graduates? In their article “Cultivating Critical-Thinking Dispositions Throughout the Business Curriculum,” Janel Bloch and Sandra E. Spataro explore what can be done in the business school module to promote these skills.

The abstract:

Critical thinking is an essential component of managerial literacy, yet business school graduates struggle to apply critical-thinking skills at work to the level that employers desire. This article argues for a dispositional approach toBPCQ.indd teaching critical thinking, rooted in cultivating a critical-thinking culture. We suggest a two-pronged approach of (a) clearly defining critical thinking and selecting an accessible model for applying it and (b) integrating critical thinking consistently throughout the business curriculum. We illustrate implementation of this strategy in our revised MBA curriculum and conclude by challenging others to consider adopting a cultural and dispositional approach.

Click here to read “Cultivating Critical-Thinking Dispositions Throughout the Business Curriculum” and here to read the September editorial entitled “Finding Ways to Teach Critical Thinking in Business and Professional Communication” for free from Business and Professional Communication Quarterly. Want to know about all the latest from Business and Professional Communication Quarterly? Click here to sign up for e-alerts!

How Can Strategy Be Integrated with Entrepreneurship?

August 21, 2014 by

Read the latest offering from The Journal of Entrepreneurship entitled “Entrepreneurship and Competitive Strategy: An Integrative Approach.”

The abstract:

The two fields of strategic management and entrepreneurship have been viewed as inseparable twins and the relationship has been coined strategic entrepreneurship by a JOEnumber of scholars. Though the integrative studies of the two areas continue, there seems to be a dearth in the study of the two areas at business (competitive) strategy level. This is a conceptual article which aims to show how business strategy can be integrated with entrepreneurship to enhance firm competitiveness. Whether one argues that strategy subsumes entrepreneurship or that entrepreneurship subsumes strategy, an apparent intersection exists. The integrated strategy is termed entrepreneurial competitive strategy and the article presents a framework for this integration. As with any other literature based model, this model can still be improved and needs to be tested for practical application.

Click here to read “Entrepreneurship and Competitive Strategy: An Integrative Approach” from The Journal of Entrepreneurship. Want to read all the latest from The Journal of Entrepreneurship? Click here to sign up for e-alerts!

How Do Regulations Affect Athletes’ Doping Decisions?

August 20, 2014 by

pills-1023897-mIn 2013, the International Association of Athletics Federations announced that as of January 1, 2015, any athletes with serious doping offenses will receive a four-year ban on competition participation, which for many could mean prohibition from the Olympics. But David Epstein of Sports Illustrated Magazine predicts this won’t stop athletes from continuing to use performance enhancing drugs. Authors Vijay Mohan and Bharat Hazari researched this topic further in their article entitled “Cheating in Contests: Anti-Regulatory Problems in Sport” from Journal of Sports Economics to see how factors such as increased monitoring affected both the athletes’ decision to dope as well as their means of obtaining the drugs.

The abstract:

We examine the impact of regulation on the doping decisions of athletes in a Tullock contest. The regulatory measures weJSE__.indd consider are greater monitoring by sports authorities and a lowering of the prize in the contest. When legal efforts and illegal drugs are substitutes, an increase in anti-doping regulation may, counterintuitively, increase the levels of doping activity by athletes. Anti-doping regulation can also have the undesirable consequence of decreasing legal efforts; in our model, this always occurs when legal efforts and illegal drugs are complements, and under certain circumstances when they are substitutes.

“Cheating in Contests: Anti-Regulatory Problems in Sport” from Journal of Sports Economics can be read for free by clicking here. Want to know about all the latest news and research from Journal of Sports Economics? Click here to sign up for e-alerts!

How Should Businesses Respond to Bad Online Reviews?

August 19, 2014 by

paper-emotions---aggressive-1158072-mAccording to Forbes, 72% of people trust online reviews just as much as they would trust the opinion of a friend or family member. Furthermore, 4 out of 5 consumers admitted in a survey that they changed their mind about a purchase after reading online reviews. With statistics like these, it’s not surprising that many businesses have chosen to start responding to bad reviews in hopes of atoning for the customer’s bad experience. But how can businesses successfully respond to these reviews online? Authors Beverley A. Sparks and Graham L. Bradley recently explored this topic and developed a typology of managerial responses to negative online reviews in their article “A ‘Triple A’ Typology of Responding to Negative Consumer-Generated Online Reviews” from Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Research.

The abstract:

Increasingly, consumers are posting online reviews about hotels, restaurants, and other tourism and hospitality providers. While some managers are responding to these reviews, little is2JHTR07_Covers.pdf known about how to respond and how to do so effectively. Drawing on the service recovery, justice, and electronic word-of-mouth literatures, we developed a typology of management responses to negative online reviews of hotel accommodation. An initial version of the typology was verified through interviews with eight industry experts. The final “Triple A” typology comprised 19 specific forms of managerial responses subsumed within the three higher-level categories of acknowledgements, accounts, and actions. The typology was tested on a sample of 150 conversations drawn from the website, TripAdvisor. Most responses included an acknowledgement of the dissatisfying event, an account (explanation) for its occurrence, and a reference to action taken. Responses differed between top- and bottom-ranked hotels. Propositions for extending this area of research are provided.

Click here to read “A ‘Triple A’ Typology of Responding to Negative Consumer-Generated Online Reviews” from Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Research for free! Want to get notifications about all the latest research from Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Research sent straight to your inbox? Click here to sign up for e-alerts!


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