Exploring the Determinants of Becoming a Mentor in Turkish Organizations

[We’re pleased to welcome authors Muhsine Itir Ozgen of Koc University, Tojo Thatchenkery of George Mason University, and James William Rowell of MEF University. They recently published an article in the Journal of Applied Behavioral Science entitled “Exploring the Determinants of Becoming a Mentor in Turkish Organizations,” which is currently free to read for a limited time. Below, they briefly describe the research and its significance.]

JAB_72ppiRGB_powerpointIn 2014, I was invited to facilitate a panel of international organizations at a conference in Istanbul, Turkey. The Learning and Development Directors of several well-known companies from a range of sectors were invited to discuss their learning and development strategies. Participants included – Coca-Cola, Denizbank (a Russian and Turkish cooperative venture in the banking industry), Migros (one of the largest supermarket chains). They discovered, through the conference, that they had a common strategy in learning and development, and agreed on the importance of mentoring programs in organizations. The L&D Director of Migros emphasized the value of his mentoring relationship as he stated: “I carry my mentor on my shoulders holding his feet, not to make him fall down but I keep his hands free so that he can direct me where to go”.
That was so intriguing for me and I started my inquiry about the workplace mentoring; the literature supports the notion that positive outcomes are related to employees engaging in either traditional or informal mentoring relationships.
My major motivation to pursue this research was to understand the reasons which make those individuals be part of these relationships. In the end, mentoring is a two-way relationship between mentor and mentee. The benefits are more obvious for the mentees but for the mentors, in a sense, is an additional task, adding to their workload. So what makes potential mentors want to be part of this relationship? What incites those individuals who are willing to mentor? My interest in answering these questions formed the gateway to this quantitative study.
The major challenge in the research was the research design. In order to achieve rich contextual results, a mixed method study design could be used by including employee interviews. In-depth interviews could enrich clarifying the results and understanding how the individuals interpret the items of the instrument.

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Top Five Articles from Organizational Research Methods

JPG READINGSummer is just around the corner, bringing with it longer days and warmer weather. To celebrate the season, we present a list of most read articles from Organizational Research Methods to add to your summer reading list.

“Seeking Qualitative Rigor in Inductive Research: Notes on the Gioia Methodology” by Dennis A. Gioia, Kevin G. Corley, and Aimee Hamilton (January 2013)

For all its richness and potential for discovery, qualitative research has been critiqued as too often lacking in scholarly rigor. The authors summarize a systematic approach to new concept development and grounded theory articulation that is designed to
bring “qualitative rigor” to the conduct and presentation of inductive research.

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“Validation of a New General Self-Efficacy Scale” by Gilad Chen, Stanley M. Gully, and Dov Eden (January 2001)

Researchers have suggested that general self-efficacy (GSE)can substantially contribute to organizational theory, research, and practice. Unfortunately, the limited construct validity work conducted on commonly used GSE measures has highlighted such potential problems as low content validity and multidimensionality. The authors developed a new GSE (NGSE) scale and compared its psychometric properties and validity to that of the Sherer et al. General Self-Efficacy Scale (SGSE). Studies in two countries found that the NGSE scale has higher construct validity than the SGSE scale. Although shorter than the SGSE scale, the NGSE scale demonstrated high reliability, predicted specific self-efficacy (SSE) for a variety of tasks in various contexts, and moderated the influence of previous performance on subsequent SSE formation. Implications, limitations, and directions for future organizational research are discussed.

“Common Beliefs and Reality About PLS: Comments on Rönkkö and Evermann (2013)” by Jörg Henseler, Theo K. Dijkstra, Marko Sarstedt, Christian M. RingleAdamantios Diamantopoulos, Detmar W. Straub, David J. Ketchen Jr.Joseph F. Hair, G. Tomas M. Hult, and Roger J. Calantone (April 2014)

This article addresses Rönkkö and Evermann’s criticisms of the partial least squares (PLS) approach to structural equation modeling. We contend that the alleged shortcomings of PLS are not due to problems with the technique, but instead to three problems with Rönkkö and Evermann’s study: (a) the adherence to the common factor model, (b) a very limited simulation designs, and (c) overstretched generalizations of their findings. Whereas Rönkkö and Evermann claim to be dispelling myths about PLS, they have in reality created new myths that we, in turn, debunk. By examining their claims, our article contributes to reestablishing a constructive discussion of the PLS method and its properties. We show that PLS does offer advantages for exploratory research and that it is a viable estimator for composite factor models. This can pose an interesting alternative if the common factor model does not hold. Therefore, we can conclude that PLS should continue to be used as an important statistical tool for management and organizational research, as well as other social science disciplines.

“Using Generalized Estimating Equations for Longitudinal Data Analysis” by Gary A. Ballinger (April 2004)

The generalized estimating equation (GEE) approach of Zeger and Liang facilitates analysis of data collected in longitudinal, nested, or repeated measures designs. GEEs use the generalized linear model to estimate more efficient and unbiased regression parameters relative to ordinary least squares regression in part because they permit specification of a working correlation matrix that accounts for the form of within-subject correlation of responses on dependent variables of many different distributions, including normal, binomial, and Poisson. The author briefly explains the theory behind GEEs and their beneficial statistical properties and limitations and compares GEEs to suboptimal approaches for analyzing longitudinal data through use of two examples. The first demonstration applies GEEs to the analysis of data from a longitudinal lab study with a counted response variable; the second demonstration applies GEEs to analysis of data with a normally distributed response variable from subjects nested within branch offices ofan organization.

“Answers to 20 Questions About Interrater Reliability and Interrater Agreement” by James M. LeBreton and Jenell L. Senter (October 2008)

The use of interrater reliability (IRR) and interrater agreement (IRA) indices has increased dramatically during the past 20 years. This popularity is, at least in part, because of the increased role of multilevel modeling techniques (e.g., hierarchical linear modeling and multilevel structural equation modeling) in organizational research. IRR and IRA indices are often used to justify aggregating lower-level data used in composition models. The purpose of the current article is to expose researchers to the various issues surrounding the use of IRR and IRA indices often used in conjunction with multilevel models. To achieve this goal, the authors adopt a question-and-answer format and provide a tutorial in the appendices illustrating how these indices may be computed using the SPSS software.

All of the above articles from Organizational Research Methods will be free to access for the next two weeks. Want to know all about the latest research from Organizational Research Methods? Click here to sign up for e-alerts!

*Reading image attributed to Herry Lawford (CC)

Read Journal of Marketing Education’s Special Issue on Sales Education and Training for Free!

class-room-990536-mWhat factors influence undergraduate business students’ decision to pursue sales education? What’s the role of self-efficacy in sales education? Can an interactive computer simulation teach students sales ethics? Journal of Marketing Education‘s Special Issue on Sales Education and Training explores these topics and more!

James W. Peltier of the University of Wisconsin-Whitewater and Andrea L. Dixon of Baylor University collaborated on the issue’s Editor Corner:

Welcome to this Journal of Marketing Education (JME) Special Issue on Sales Education and Training. We proposed this Special Issue as demand for college graduates with a sales degree/major/minor/emphasis/interest continues to escalate. In addition to being the most common career entry point for marketing students, a 2010 Georgetown University study found that sales is a top-ranked career for a number of disciplines outside of marketing. Interestingly, sales JME(D)_72ppiRGB_powerpointranked second for students majoring in general business, economics, international business, and management. Sales ranked third for students majoring in finance, operations management, HR, and management information systems. Across campus, sales ranked second/third for students in the social, natural, and physical sciences and in liberal arts and communications.
While the demand for graduates to work in sales grows, there is a shortage of scholarly articles dealing specifically with sales curricula and sales pedagogy. In fact, the marketing education literature has been relatively slow in responding to changes in sales education and training. Of the over 800 articles published in JME’s history, only 27 papers deal with sales education (see Gray et al., 2012).
The absence of research in sales education is not due to a lack of activity or paucity of scholars in this area. According to DePaul’s Universities and Colleges Sales Education Landscape Survey, sales curricula grew from 44 U.S. programs in 2007 to 101 programs in 2011. As demand for sales-ready graduates grows, universities are trying to meet this demand by expanding curricular offerings, opening sales centers, and hiring sales faculty. We initiated this Special Issue with a goal of engaging scholars in this area and sparking additional research.
Journal of Marketing Education‘s Special Issue on Sales Education and Training includes sections focusing on recruiting and developing the student mindset, self efficacy and sales, and the classroom and teaching tools. Click here to access the table of contents and read the articles for free for the next 30 days! Make sure to click here to sign up for e-alerts and be notified about all the latest research from Journal of Marketing Education!

Impact on Layoff Survivors

buried-alive-253947-mWith a slow economic recovery well underway, there is a new employment story to be told—those who remain at organizations that have recently been downsized. Elizabeth W. Cotter at Virginia Commonwealth University and Nadya A. Fouad at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee explore what happens to layoff survivors in the article “Examining Burnout and Engagement in Layoff Survivors: The Role of Personal Strengths” from Journal of Career Development.

The abstract:

This study investigates burnout and work engagement in layoff survivors. Layoff survivors are defined as individuals who remain working at organizations that have recently had layoffs. Job demands (job insecurity and work overload) and job and personal resources (social support, optimism, careerJCD_72ppiRGB_powerpoint adaptability, and career management self-efficacy) are examined as predictors of burnout and engagement. The sample consists of 203 adults currently working at organizations that downsized within the past year. As hypothesized, job demands had positive relationships with burnout, while social support, optimism, and career management self-efficacy had positive relationships with engagement. Contrary to hypotheses, career adaptability was not positively related to engagement. Engagement also mediated the relationships between several resources and burnout. This study makes a unique contribution to the literature, as little research has examined personal strengths of layoff survivors, in addition to job characteristics.

Read the full article here, free for the next month! Don’t forget to sign up for e-alerts to stay on top of the latest research from Journal of Career Development.

Testing a Model of Work Performance in an Academic Environment

B. Charles Tatum of National University published “Testing a Model of Work Performance in an Academic Environment” on April 10, 2012 in SAGE Open. To view other SAGE Open articles by subject, please click here.

The abstract:

In modern society, people both work and study. The intersection between organizational and educational research suggests that a common model should apply to both academic and job performance. The purpose of this study was to apply a model of work and job performance (based on general expectancy theory) to a classroom setting, and test the predicted relationships using a causal/path model methodology. The findings revealed that motivation and ability predicted student expectations and self-efficacy, and that expectations and efficacy predicted class performance. Limitations, implications, and future research directions are discussed. This study showed how the research in industrial and organizational psychology is relevant to education. It was concluded that greater effort should be made to integrate knowledge across a wider set of domains.

To learn more about SAGE Open, please click here.

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Self-Efficacy Beliefs in Leader Development

Moe Machida and John Schaubroeck, both of Michigan State University, published “The Role of Self-Efficacy Beliefs in Leader Development” in Online First in Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies. Professor Machida provided some background information regarding the recent article.

Who is the target audience for this article?

We believe that both scholars and practitioners who are interested in a topic of leader development will find the article helpful.

What inspired you to be interested in this topic?

I was always skeptical about “higher the confidence, the better” approach that is commonly seen in both research and real life. And I decided to examine it further in this article.

Were there findings that were surprising to you?

Although this is a strictly conceptual paper, it provides direction to future empirical studies that may challenge the common notions about self-confidence.

How do you see this study influencing future research and/or practice?

We believe that this article will broaden the readers’ perspectives about the role of self-confidence in leader development. We hope that scholars and practitioners will follow up with the suggestions made in the article for their future research and/or practice.

How does this study fit into your body of work/line of research?

My main research interests include development of leaders and the gender differences in the leader development process. I am planning on testing the relationships suggested in the paper in my future studies!

How did your paper change during the review process?

Our article was accepted in the current form. And we are very grateful for the editors’ decision!

What, if anything, would you do differently if you could go back and do this study again?

We are pretty happy with our article. But if space allows, it would have been nice to discuss additional factors (that may influence the relationship between self-confidence and leader development). I am definitely planning on following up with the propositions and suggestions we have made in the paper. This is a topic that I am passionate about, and I am looking forward to further studying this topic!

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