A Review of Adventure Tourism Literature

25451482464_a4c1837cac_z[We are pleased to welcome Mingming Cheng of UTS Business School. Mingming recently published an article in Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research entitled “A Tri-Method Approach to a Review of Adventure Tourism Literature: Bibliometric Analysis and a Quantitative Systematic Literature Review” with co-authors Deborah Edwards, Simon Darcy, and Kylie Redfern.]

  • What inspired you to be interested in this topic?

When I conducted my literature review at the start of my doctoral study, I realised that the current methods in reviewing literature are mainly with narrative analysis. These reviews are usually conducted by leading experts in a particular field. However, such reviews are highly subjective and might have a range of potential biases. Current Issue CoverParticularly, it seems nearly impossible for me as a young researcher to replicate their studies. Sometimes, I wondered how they have drawn a certain conclusion. Along the way, I realised that some researchers use a systematic review approach that identifies the key categories with the literature to provide a generalization but still it is unclear where the current literature comes from, and who and what theories influence the field. In addition, I also noticed that there are a considerable number of researchers using bibliometric methods to identity the knowledge base and intellectual structure of a particularly field. However, similar questions came to me again: bibilometric methods could not identity whether the argument is supportive or offers a critique. Thus, I wondered what if I combine them together, would it yield different outcomes?

As such, based on previous work and particularly inspired by one of my colleagues’ work (Randawa, Wilden & Hohberger, 2016), we utilized the strengths of three different methods to advance previous reviews on a particular field (adventure tourism in this study) via a more, systematic, objective and integrated review of its literature. Our approach identifies the theoretical foundations, key themes and the conceptual boundary of a particular field.

  • Were there findings that were surprising to you?

The findings are very surprising to us as we discovered something that have been overlooked in the literature and this helps us clearly identify future opportunities for emerging research areas. The combination of biblometric methods, content analysis and a quantitative systematic literature review approach gives our researchers multiple lenses to the current literature. In particular, the bibliometric and content analysis in our study shows that adventure tourism still has a great reliance on established disciplines for theories, such as flow theory, edge work, and reversal theory. As such, despite the gradually changing focus (e.g. destination development and impact) and new methods of investigation (e.g. auto-ethnography), scholarship in this field is relatively immature compared to many other tourism areas. As such, future opportunities exist for better integration of other relevant theories through disciplinary, multi-disciplinary, interdisciplinary, trans-disciplinary and contextual field with adventure tourism research.

  • How do you see this study influencing future research and/or practice?

From an academic point of view, our research provides a clear-cut picture of the adventure tourism literature by understanding its theoretical movement, key themes and its conceptual boundary. Thus, it enables our researchers to visibly position ourselves in the literature to detect potential new directions as well as to locate their work within the field. From a methodological perspective, it advances extant methodological literature on the review of literature by analyzing the field in a holistic, objective and integrated manner that helps reduce the bias that is often related to traditional literature review methods and expert interviews. From a practical perspective, it can serve as an introduction to a rapidly evolving adventure tourism field for students and practitioners.

The abstract for the paper:

This article provides an objective, systematic, and integrated review of the Western academic literature on adventure tourism to discover the theoretical foundations and key themes underlying the field by combining three complementary approaches of bibliometric analysis, content analysis, and a quantitative systematic review. A total of 114 publications on adventure tourism were identified that revealed three broad areas of foci with adventure tourism research: (1) adventure tourism experience, (2) destination planning and development, and (3) adventure tourism operators. Adventure tourism has an intellectual tradition from multiple disciplines, such as the social psychology of sport and recreation. There is an underrepresentation of studies examining non-Western tourists in their own geographic contexts or non-Western tourists in Western geographic contexts. Our findings pave ways for developing a more robust framework and holistic understanding of the adventure tourism field.

You can read “A Tri-Method Approach to a Review of Adventure Tourism Literature: Bibliometric Analysis and a Quantitative Systematic Literature Review” from Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research free for the next two weeks by clicking here. Want to stay current on all the latest research from Journal of Hospitality & Tourism ResearchClick here to sign up for e-alerts!

*Kayak image attributed to Matt Zimmerman (CC)

Critical Reflection: Real Life Applications for Mezirow’s Theory

14488224787_79c11e5287_z[We are pleased to welcome Henriette Lundgren. Henriette published an article in Human Resource Development Review entitled “On Critical Reflection: A Review of Mezirow’s Theory and its Operationalization,” with co-author Rob F. Poell.]

  • What inspired you to be interested in this topic?

To stop and think is considered good practice in most professional contexts. For example, we expect a nurse to review the patient’s symptoms before administering a medicine. Similarly, we expect an entrepreneur to examine the underlying market assumptions before venturing into a new business idea. Rather than rushing into glib problem solving or thoughtless decision-making, we believe that everybody needs to take some moments from time to time to reflect: What is the situation? How can I HRDdeal with it? Why is this important to me? To stop and think is another very basic way of describing the process of reflection, but how do we know whether someone is really reflecting – critically or not – about one’s own practice? This question triggered our literature review using Jack Mezirow’s critical reflection definition as a starting point.

  • Were there findings that were surprising to you?

Reflection and non-reflection come in many shades, for example “habitual action”, “thoughtful action”, “understanding”, “introspection”, “intensive reflection” or “critical reflection. Researchers in adult education and human resource development (HRD) have made a sincere effort to distinguish between these shades of reflection in their empirical studies. Maybe our mind was more binary before we started this project: “Reflection yes/no”. So being shown indicators that help us operationalize reflection in our own empirical research was a pleasant side effect of this study.

  • How do you see this study influencing future research and/or practice?

Our study gives an overview on critical reflection research and its operationalization, and it points out four areas of improvement (see checklist at the end of article). Critics might say that we could have taken more efforts to show explicitly the connections between critical reflection and learning and how our work impacts HRD theory, research, and practice. While these are good avenues for future research, we encourage readers to help us think along what our findings mean for learning and development of nurses, teachers and entrepreneurs, and we look forward to continuing this conversation and debate.

The abstract for the paper:

In this article, we review empirical studies that research critical reflection based on Mezirow’s definition. The concepts of content, process, and premise reflection have often been cited, and operationalizing Mezirow’s high-level transformative learning theory and its components has been the endeavor of adult education and human resource development (HRD) researchers. By conducting a literature review, we distill 12 research studies on critical reflection that we dissect, analyze, and compare. Discovering different approaches, assessment processes, and outcomes leads us to the conclusion that there is little agreement on how to operationalize reflection. We suggest four improvements: (a) integrating different critical reflection traditions, (b) using multiple data collection pathways, (c) opting for thematic embedding, and (d) attending to feelings. By implementing these improvements, we hope to stimulate closer alignment of approaches in critical reflection research across adult education and HRD researchers.

You can read “On Critical Reflection: A Review of Mezirow’s Theory and its Operationalization” from Human Resource Development Review free for the next two weeks by clicking here. Want to know all about the latest research Podcast Microphonefrom Human Resource Development Review? Click here to sign up for e-alertsYou can also listen to a podcast with author Henriette Lundgren as she discusses her work on this article. You can listen to the podcast here.

*Image attributed to Kent Nguyen (CC)

HenrietteHenriette Lundgren is a workplace educator and an associated researcher with Tilburg University in the Netherlands. Her main scholarly interests are learning in the workplace, the use of reflection instruments, and adult education theory.

Rob

Rob F. Poell is a professor of human resource development (HRD) in the Department of Human Resource Studies at Tilburg University in the Netherlands. His main scholarly interests are learning in the workplace, action learning, project-based learning, organizing HRD, and learning networks.

New Podcast: Henriette Lundgren on Mezirow’s Theory and Its Operationalization

Podcast MicrophoneIn the latest podcast from Human Resource Development Review, Henriette Lundgren discusses the article she co-authored with Rob Poell entitled, “On Critical Reflection: A Review of Mezirow’s Theory and Its Operationalization,” which was recently published in the March 2016 issue of Human Resource Development Review.

You can find the podcast on the Human Resource Development Review website here, or click here to download the podcast. You can also read the full article free for the next two weeks by clicking here.

The abstract:

In this article, we review empirical studies that research critical reflection based on Mezirow’s definition. The concepts of content, process, and premise reflection have often been cited, and operationalizing Mezirow’s high-level transformative learning theory and its components has been the endeavorHRD.jpg of adult education and human resource development (HRD) researchers. By conducting a literature review, we distill 12 research studies on critical reflection that we dissect, analyze, and compare. Discovering different approaches, assessment processes, and outcomes leads us to the conclusion that there is little agreement on how to operationalize reflection. We suggest four improvements: (a) integrating different critical reflection traditions, (b) using multiple data collection pathways, (c) opting for thematic embedding, and (d) attending to feelings. By implementing these improvements, we hope to stimulate closer alignment of approaches in critical reflection research across adult education and HRD researchers.

Want to hear more podcast like this? Click here to browse more podcasts from Human Resource Development Review, and here to subscribe to the SAGE Management and Business podcast channel on iTunes. You can also sign up for e-alerts and get notifications of all the latest research from Human Resource Development Review sent directly to your inbox!


 

Henriette Lundgren is a workplace educator and an associated researcher with Tilburg University in the Netherlands. Her main scholarly interests are learning in the workplace, the use of reflection instruments, and adult education theory.

 

How Has Retailing Evolved?

antique-cash-register-1552352From general stores to department stores and superstores, retailing has undergone significant changes in the past two centuries. In their article “The Evolution of Retailing: A Meta Review of the Literature” from Journal of Macromarketing, authors Ellen McArthur, Scott Weaven, and Rajiv Dant review a wide range of literature detailing the progression of retailing throughout the years.

[Editor’s Note: We are saddened to report the passing of Rajiv Dant. Dr. Dant held the dual positions of Helen Robson Walton Centennial Chair in Marketing in the Price College of Business, University of Oklahoma and Professor of Marketing, Griffith University. He was a world-renowned scholar in the areas of distribution channels, supply chain management, and franchising.]

The abstract:

The evolution of retailing has interested academics across a range of disciplines including economics, history, JMMK_new C1 template.inddgeography, and marketing. Due to its interdisciplinary appeal, the corpus of knowledge on retailing is composed of many disparate variables of analysis – from transaction costs and entrepreneurs, to environmental factors and the dispersion of stores. In consequence, the literature that attempts to explain retailing evolution presents as a patchwork, and extant theories remain disconnected because of their narrowness of focus. This literature review applies a macro and systems theory approach to the multi-discipline literature, and links together bodies of work that, until now, have remained conceptually unconnected. This provides a meta typology of six factors that could explain change in retailing: economic efficiencies, cyclical patterns, power inequities, innovative behavior, environmental influences, and interdependent parts of the system in co-evolution.

You can read The Evolution of Retailing: A Meta Review of the Literature” from Journal of Macromarketing for free by clicking here. Want to know about all the latest research like this from Journal of Macromarketing? Click here to sign up for e-alerts!

They Call Me Coach

whistle-fffffff-636332-mWhen it comes to human resource development, there are three types of coaching to consider: managerial coaching, executive coaching and peer coaching. But how do you measure the accuracy and legitimacy of coaching within an organizational context? Authors Marcia S. Hagen and Shari L. Peterson discuss in their article from Advances in Developing Human Resources entitled “Coaching Scales: A Review of the Literature and Comparative Analysis.”

The abstract:

The Problem Given the relevance of scales for selecting managers, Peterson and Little called for an examination of scales used to measure coaching. However, there are few ADHR_72ppiRGB_powerpointoptions from which to select validated scales used to measure coaching. Consequently, there appears to be a knowledge gap—little is known about the coaching scales that are available and how they have been validated and tested.

The Solution A proposed solution to the issue is to (a) present a comprehensive review of the literature, identifying coaching scales; (b) analyze those scales, providing information on scale item development, reliability, and validation of available scales; and (c) compare and clarify the efficacy of those scales.

The Stakeholders This literature review will benefit academic scholars, practitioners, and scholar-practitioners by supporting and encouraging their research. Identification and clarification of the existing scales, their focus, and validation processes can bridge the research/theory–practice gap.

Click here to read “Coaching Scales: A Review of the Literature and Comparative Analysisfor free from Advances in Developing Human Resources! Don’t miss out on any of the latest research from Advances in Developing Human Resources! Click here to sign up for e-alerts!

The Quiet Power of the ‘Most Trusted Advisor’

Editor’s note: We are pleased to welcome Dr. Vanessa M. Strike of Erasmus University in Rotterdam, the Netherlands, who provides an inside look at two of her articles recently published in Family Business Review. Read the full-text articles here and here.

Queen Elizabeth I had Courtier Sir Francis Walsingham. Don Vito Corleone had family lawyer and consigliore Tom Hagan. From ancient Chinese dynasties to present-day family firms, “Most Trusted Advisors” have been quietly wielding power for centuries.

UntitledI first became intrigued by the role of Most Trusted Advisor (MTA) over a decade ago when I asked a long-serving individual in a family-controlled firm what exactly he did. He replied, “If nobody knows who I am, or what I do, then I know I am doing my job.” His reply settled and dwelt within me as I became both intrigued and inspired to determine just who he was, and what he did.

Over the course of the next ten years I conducted a grounded theory study that examined the role of the MTA and the subtle advice process. I interviewed nine MTAs and the families they advised in six family firms. I found MTAs were a challenging group to gain access to. They are very private as they are privy to the sacrosanct areas of the family and firm, and they have an integral role in holding many family firms together.

fbr_coverIn documenting the role of MTAs what I found surprising was that the existence of MTAs has largely remained unknown, even to scholars within the inner circle of family firms. Furthermore, that MTAs derive their power not from the advice they give, but the way they give it.

In examining both their subtle role “nobody knows who I am”, and the subtle advice process “nobody knows what I do”, the study makes three primary contributions. First, it empirically identifies the MTA’s role. Second, it uncovers how subtle and overt advice practices and tactics allow the MTA to direct and guide attention in family firms. Third, it documents how MTAs work to benefit the collective of the family firm as opposed to their own self-interest which is common in many advising relationships.

MTAs are different from other kinds of consultants. They advise the firm on both business and family matters. They try to prevent the worst from happening: succession problems, family breakup, and business collapse. They occupy a position of exceptional trust, which enables them to challenge ideas and offer new perspectives. As per one family business owner:

“You’ve got a cocktail shaker and you put in all kinds of things that come from other people, but the shaking up of the drink and making it new, it’s only you who can do that. So while you get input from a lot of people in the end you take that and think about it and it becomes you and you decide. But some people have more influence on that drink you are going to serve. And that’s the difference between the advisor and the Most Trusted Advisor.”

Advisors help entrepreneurs obtain better access to resources, create long term plans, and put in place good decision-making processes. This research provides family firms with an idea of the qualities they need to look for in an advisor, an understanding of what a good advisor can do, and how he or she can do it. For family firm practitioners MTAs can guide and direct family members attention, helping them to think about issues differently. Effective advisors should:

• Develop voice and self-awareness, building on their personal strengths
• Gain broad experience and knowledge
• Focus on understanding family dynamics, emotions and ability of family members to deal with multiple issues
• Assist the family to stay focused on the goal of family unity.

Read the article, The Most Trusted Advisor and the Subtle Advice Process in Family Firms, online in the Family Business Review September 2013 issue.

During the course of my work and research on family firms I became aware of the importance of advisors to the firms’ success and survival. Advisors are especially salient to family firms as these firms must balance both the business and family systems, and the overlap between the two. Family firm advisors help to achieve this balance. In doing so they must often fill multiple roles and are privy to the most intimate secrets of the family, the sacrosanct areas. With this knowledge family firm advisors can do much good, yet this knowledge also provides them with the opportunity to do much harm.

What I found surprising is that despite their quiet power and importance to the firm, limited scholarly research has been conducted on family firm advisors. This study lays the foundation for several other studies I am currently working on that explores the role of family firm advisors from a grounded theory perspective.

RVanessa Strikeead the article, Advising the Family Firm: Reviewing the Past to Build the Future, online in the Family Business Review June 2012 issue.

Vanessa M. Strike, PhD, is an assistant professor in the Department of Strategic Management and Entrepreneurship and the founding and scientific director of the Erasmus Centre for Family Business, Rotterdam School of Management, Erasmus University, the Netherlands.

The Internationalization of Family Firms

When and how do family businesses internationalize? The question has been percolating for years among international management, entrepreneurship, and family business academics, practitioners, and policy makers. Thilo J. Pukall and Andrea Calabrò, both of Witten/Herdecke University in Witten, Germany, provide an updated and complete assessment with “The Internationalization of Family Firms: A Critical Review and Integrative Model,” forthcoming in Family Business Review and now available in the journal’s OnlineFirst section:
FBR_72ppiRGB_150pixWThis article systematically reviews and critically examines 72 journal articles published (from 1980 to 2012) on the internationalization of family firms. Stemming from existing literature, core aspects and main gaps are identified. We aim to overcome the inconclusiveness of findings of previous research by offering an integrative theoretical model integrating the concept of socioemotional wealth with the revised Uppsala model. Our framework helps understand behaviors of internationalizing family firms by focusing on when and how they internationalize, especially related to risk attitudes, the role of knowledge and networks. Ultimately, we provide future research themes flowing from our suggested model.
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