Appreciating the Soul: Reflecting on Leadership

2017-10-19 10_30_31-1056492617710758.pngWe are pleased to feature authors Nancy J. Adler and Andre Delbecq and their innovative article on leadership. Recently Drs. Adler and Delbecq published an article titled “Twenty-First Century Leadership: A Return to Beauty” in the Journal of Management Inquiry. In their article, Adler and Delbecq take the unique approach of combining beautiful artwork with profound writing that invites readers to reflect on themselves and their aspirations for leadership. The article is free to read for a limited amount of time. Read the abstract below:

Adler portraitHighlighting Aristotle’s appreciation that “The soul . . . never thinks without a picture,” this article weaves together art and ideas into an aesthetic encounter with beauty, leadership, and our humanity. It invites reflection based on long-established wisdom traditions as well as drawing on insights from everyday sacred traditions. You are invited not only to engage in reading the words presented on each page but also to stop and to reflect on their meaning. You are offered the power of art to intensify your experience and understanding. The article invites you to enter into a contemplative silence designed to increase your appreciation of your own and others’ humanity while deepening the beauty of your own leadership. Such encounters with art and deep reflection have the power to guide us in rediscovering and creating beauty in our fractured world. Encountering art and wisdom through a deeply reflective process does not dismiss science but, rather, partners with all ways of knowing to go beyond what any one approach can produce on its own. Thus, the overall invitation of the article is to heighten your understanding of yourself, your role, and your aspirations as a 21st-century leader.

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Navigating the Study of Executive Leaders’ Spirituality

[Wejmia_26_1-cover’re pleased to welcome Dr. Stuart Allen, Associate Professor at Robert Morris University in Organizational Leadership. Allen recently published an article in Journal of Management Inquiry entitled “Navigating the Study of Executive Leaders’ Spirituality: André Delbecq’s Journey.” From Allen:]

We first began to communicate with André Delbecq in 2014. After reading his articles and hearing him speak at conferences we were eager to include him in an instructional video we were working on that addressed the role of spirituality in leadership and the workplace. André invited us to visit him at his home in San Francisco in early 2015 to video-record an hour long discussion. André is a renowned figure in the Academy of Management, and especially in the Management Spirituality and Religion (MSR) Interest Group, due to his long history of contributions to the management field (over 225 scholarly articles) and his pioneering work on topics such as the Nominal Group Technique. In his late career, in the late 1990s, André began to focus on executive leadership spirituality, publishing various accounts of his approach in delivering seminars on this topic to his graduate management students at Santa Clara University, where he served as senior fellow in the Ignatian Center for Jesuit Education and professor of management in the Leavey School of Business.

In the months following the interview, while editing the video footage, we realized that we had much more content than we could include in our initial video; we also recognized the depth of André’s rich experience and warm approach in sharing his experiences and perspective. After seeing an article about Fred Luthans (Sommer, 2006) in the unique Meet the Person format included in the Journal of Management Inquiry (JMI), we contacted André and JMI’s editors to gauge interest in an article in this format about André. In August 2016 we met with André for a second interview at the Academy of Management’s 2016 Annual Conference in Anaheim and spent another 90 minutes with André. He elaborated on some of the earlier issues we had explored with him while adding a great focus on his career and experiences as a pioneering teaching practitioner and author. By this time, we had come to know André better, and later that same morning we presented a panel with him and Jody Fry.

Wanting to see the interviews published, we finished the manuscript in September 2016 and sent it to André for his review and approval. He responded on October 1 letting us know that we could publish the article, but also letting us know he was experiencing some health challenges and would be heading to hospital. Twelve days later we heard of André’s passing. This was a challenging end to the beginning of great friendship as we were just getting to know André at a new level. We were also awed by his generosity and commitment to scholarship through the detailed comments we received in his review, even when he was ill and about to go to the hospital.

This article reports on the two interviews, providing a broader picture of André’s career and experiences as a pioneering scholar and teacher. André also shared some of his thinking about the current state of the MSR field and opportunities for new research. He has shared his thoughts on how to approach the challenges of researching new topics and the rewards he received for doing so. It is hard to communicate the full essence of the experience of working with André, who was a wise, patient, generous, bold, and joyful person to be with. He exemplified the transformative presence of a great leader and scholar. We were honored with the opportunity to capture his thoughts and experiences at what unexpectedly turned out to be the end of his life. Anyone who knew André, is interested in MSR research, teaching, and scholarship, or those seeking to learn from the example of pioneering scholar might enjoy reading the interview.


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Learning to Lead: A Comparison of Women’s and General Leadership Development Programs

6109345368_004befc070_z[We’re pleased to welcome Keimei Sugiyama of Case Western Reserve University. Keimei recently published an article in Journal of Management Education with co-authors Kevin V. Cavanagh, Chantal van Esch, Diana Bilimoria, and Cara Brown entitled “Inclusive Leadership Development: Drawing from Pedagogies of Women’s and General Leadership Development Programs.” From Keimei:]

The importance of leadership development training focused on women has been well understood given the challenges of overcoming gender biases, stereotypes and unwritten rules that affect women in their leadership identity transition.  Yet there have also been shifts in how we think about the important qualities of leaders such that general programs include enhancing competence in self-awareness and emotional and social skills, making the work of leadership not just about meeting business demands but also about meeting the interpersonal needs of an increasingly globalized and diverse workforce.  If this is the case, then does there continue to be a need for women-focused programs or has our very understanding of leadership shifted enough to include women?

In this context, we were inspired to compare general and women’s leadership development programs in order to explore the following questions:

  • Are general and women’s leadership development programs becoming more similar or do they remain distinct in assumptions of what “leadership” is?
  • How do these assumptions affect how relating to others is addressed in developing as a leader?
  • How do these assumptions address the leadership identity transition of understanding both self and others to develop leadership capabilities?

What we found was that although General Leadership Development Programs JME(GLDPs) and Women’s Leadership Development Program (WLDPs) shared similar themes of leadership development, there was a stark contrast in what each type of program emphasized.  GLDPs were more likely to reflect assumptions of a leader as an independent self, separate from others, and manifested in more agentic and transactional leadership approaches.  WLDPs were more likely to reflect assumptions of a leader as a relational self, learning through connecting with others, and approaching the transition to leadership as relational and identity-based.  Given these contrasts and the challenges that continue to face women in the transition to leadership, we concluded that WLDPs do continue to offer significant value in supporting the advancement of women in leadership.

What surprised us in this study is that despite acknowledgement of the global context of the increasingly diverse workforce, both types of programs in their descriptions did not directly highlight how leadership involves being inclusive of multiple diverse identities and intersectionality (e.g., being a woman of color). We suggest that highlighting the importance of inclusive leadership that both values uniqueness and creates belonging for diverse multiple identities is important for any leadership development program.

We also developed a model that integrates pedagogies implicit in both types of programs to suggest a framework for inclusive leadership development. We anticipate that this framework will be helpful in better balancing and promoting more inclusive approaches to leadership in both types of programs. We also hope that this model helps to expand the research on inclusive leadership and informs new pathways for leaders to be developed in ways that value and enhance all their meaningful identities.

The abstract for the paper:

Trends in extant literature suggest that more relational and identity-based leadership approaches are necessary for leadership that can harness the benefits of the diverse and globalized workforces of today and the future. In this study, we compared general leadership development programs (GLDPs) and women’s leadership development programs (WLDPs) to understand to what extent program descriptions addressed inclusive leadership—leadership that draws on relational skills to value both the uniqueness and belonging needs of diverse identities to create business effectiveness for the long term. GLDPs predominantly reflected pedagogical assumptions of separate knowing, development of the autonomous self, and masculine leadership approaches of agentic and transactional leadership. In contrast, pedagogical assumptions of connected knowing, development of the relational self, and relational and identity-based leadership approaches were more prevalent in WLDPs. These findings suggest that WLDPs continue to offer significant value to supporting women leaders in their advancement, yet both WLDPs and GLDPs can do more to be inclusive of additional diverse identities to better develop leaders of the future who can lead with inclusive behaviors. We suggest a pedagogical framework for inclusive leadership development that may better balance and promote synergies between achieving business priorities and relating to others and their diverse identities.

You can read “Inclusive Leadership Development: Drawing from Pedagogies of Women’s and General Leadership Development Programs” from Journal of Management Education free for the next two weeks by clicking here. Want to be the first to know about the latest research published by Journal of Management EducationClick here to sign up for e-alerts!

*Image attributed to aiesecgermany (CC)

Emotional Self-Leadership: How Leader Emotion and Self-Leadership Intersect

Staff in Woodlands office, Bedford, February 2010.

[We’re pleased to welcome Charles Manz of University of Massachusetts, Amherst. Charles recently published an article in Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies with co-auhtors Jeffrey D. Houghton, Christopher P. Neck, Mel Fugate, and Craig Pearce entitled “Whistle While You Work: Toward a Model of Emotional Self-Leadership”. Charles discusses the article:]

A primary reason that I was especially interested in working on the article “Whistle While You Work: Toward a Model of Emotional Self-Leadership,” which is forthcoming in Journal of Leadership and Organization Studies, is that it afforded the opportunity to spend time and work with some of my favorite colleagues — my co-authors on the article Jeff Houghton, Chris Neck, Mel Fugate and Craig Pearce. When ever possible I personally try to choose ways to make my own work naturally enjoyable — that is, ways to essentially  “Whistle While I Work” — and for me JLOworking with these thoughtful, competent, and good and fun people, does just that. I have found collaboration is one of the most enriching features we can choose as academics, especially when we collaborate with colleagues we can learn from and enjoy being around.

Of course, it also nice that our work is now being published (providing a chance for our team to enjoy a celebration) and that our article puts a self-leadership-of-emotion stake in the ground adding to the rich literature on emotion at work. For several years our co-author team has been exploring ways to contribute to and help expand the existing work on personal influence of emotion (e.g., emotion regulation, emotional labor, etc.). In our article we introduce a model of emotional self-leadership along with propositions that we hope might inspire future research. More specifically, we explore intrapersonal and interpersonal aspects of emotional self-leadership and its inherent challenges and opportunities and we examine how emotional self-leadership strategies can be used to shape emotional experiences, emotional authenticity, and other work-related outcomes.

The abstract for the article:

There has been a growing interest in leader emotion in organizational scholarship. Concomitantly, the body of research on self-leadership continues to expand. Nonetheless, relatively little work has focused on emotional self-leadership. We address this void by exploring intrapersonal and interpersonal aspects of emotional self-leadership and its inherent challenges and opportunities. Specifically, we examine how emotional self-leadership strategies can be used to shape emotional experiences, emotional authenticity, and other work-related outcomes. We offer an emotional self-leadership model, research propositions, and implications for research and practice.

You can read “Whistle While You Work: Toward a Model of Emotional Self-Leadership” from Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies free for the next two weeks by clicking here.

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Personalized and Depersonalized Responses to Leaders’ Fair Treatment

editedgroupHow can employees’ perceptions of fairness simultaneously fuel both personalized and depersonalized leader-member relations? In a recent article published in Group & Organization, entitled “Personalized and Depersonalized Responses to Leaders’ Fair Treatment: Status Judgments and Leader-Member Exchange as Mediating Mechanisms,” author Amer A. Al-Atwi explores two psychological mechanisms through which the leader’s fair treatment encourages followers to define themselves in terms of a given role and group membership relationships. The abstract for the article:

By extracting insights from leader–member exchange (LMX) theory and social identity theory, this study predicted that a leader’s interactional justice is associated with followers’ multifoci identification by personalized and depersonalized mediating Current Issue Covermechanisms. Specifically, we hypothesized that a leader’s interactional justice affects (a) followers’ relational identification via the LMX as a personalized response and (b) followers’ work-group identification via status judgments (pride and respect) as a depersonalized response. The study’s constructs were measured on three separate occasions over an interval of 4 months, using data from a sample of 322 employees at a large public university. As predicted, we found that (a) LMX mediates the relationship between interactional justice and relational identification and (b) status judgments (pride and respect) mediate the relationships between interactional justice and work-group identification. Theoretical and practical implications for these findings are discussed.

You can read “Personalized and Depersonalized Responses to Leaders’ Fair Treatment: Status Judgments and Leader-Member Exchange as Mediating Mechanisms” from Group & Organization free for the next two weeks by clicking here.

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Happy Labor Day from Management INK!

1118679421_b0d120d892_zIn honor of Labor Day in the United States, we’re pleased to feature a collection of articles from ILR ReviewThe collection includes nine articles related to Labor Economics. One paper, entitled Workforce Reduction at Women-Owned Businesses in the United States,” authors David A. Mats and Amalia R. Miller find an association between female business leadership and increased labor hoarding. The abstract for the paper:

The authors find that privately held firms owned by women were less likely than those owned by men to downsize their workforces during the Great Recession. Year-to-year employment reductions were as much as 29% smaller at women-owned firms, even after controlling for industry, size, and profitability. Using data that allow the authors to control for additional detailed firm and owner characteristics, they also find that women-owned firms operated with greater labor intensity after the previous recession and were less likely to hire temporary or leased workers. These patterns extend previous findings associating female business leadership with increased labor hoarding.

Another paper in the collection, entitled “Revisiting the Current Issue CoverMinimum Wage–Employment Debate: Throwing Out the Baby with the Bathwater,” from authors David Neumark, J.M. Ian Salas, and William Wascher revisit the minimum wage debate with a new approach to the research design. The abstract for the paper:

The authors revisit the long-running minimum wage–employment debate to assess new studies claiming that estimates produced by the panel data approach commonly used in recent minimum wage research are flawed by that approach’s failure to account for spatial heterogeneity. The new studies use research designs intended to control for this heterogeneity and conclude that minimum wages in the United States have not reduced employment. The authors explore the ability of the new research designs to isolate reliable identifying information, and they test the designs’ untested assumptions about the construction of better control groups. Their analysis reveals problems with the new research designs. Moreover, using methods that let the data identify the appropriate control groups, their results reaffirm the evidence of disemployment effects, with teen employment elasticities near −0.15. This evidence, they conclude, still shows that minimum wages pose a tradeoff of higher wages for some against job losses for others.

You can read these two articles and more from the Labor Economics collection from ILR Review free for the next two weeks by clicking here. Want to stay current on all of the latest research from ILR Review? Click here to sign up for e-alerts!

Happy Labor Day from Management INK!

*Coffee shop image attributed to Dave Bleasdale (CC)


Are Good Citizens Also Good Transformational Leaders?

9320914837_eab120a4f3_z[We’re pleased to welcome Sophia V. Marinova of University of Alabama in Huntsville. Sophia published an article with co-authors Linn Van Dyne and Henry Moon in the February 2015 issue of Group & Organization Management entitled “Are Good Citizens Good Transformational Leaders as Well? An Employee-Centric Perspective on Transformational Leadership.”]

Leadership is viewed as the sine qua non of organizational behavior because leaders are extolled or blamed for organizational successes and failures. Conforming to a traditional top-down view of organizations, when we discuss leadership both in academic as well as in practitioner terms, we tend to think of leaders as those individuals who are already in formal managerial positions in organizations.  However, in the context of organizational empowerment, employees from all levels of the organization can be viewed as critical to effective leading in the workplace. In other words, employees have opportunities to serve as leaders from the bottom up in increasingly flatter organizational designs.

Current Issue Cover

Thus, the inspiration behind our research is to investigate how types of prominent employee organizational citizenship behavior (OCB), which reflect employee engagement, lead to perceptions of employee leadership capabilities. We draw on self-sacrifice and evolutionary notions of costly cooperative behaviors to offer OCB as an avenue for being recognized by others in work groups as leader-like. We examine four types of OCB- taking charge, helping, compliance and sportsmanship. In terms of leadership, we focus on transformational leadership because of its importance to contemporary organizations as reflected in four different dimensions- role modeling, intellectual stimulation, interpersonal consideration, and fostering goal acceptance.

We conduct our study with a diverse sample of professional employees employed in a variety of organizations in different industries. Relying on data obtained from over 1000 coworkers, supervisors, and focal employees, we analyze the relationship between the extent to which a focal employee engages in various citizenship behaviors as rated by their coworkers and perceptions of the focal employee’s transformational leadership as rated by the employee’s supervisor (while controlling for potential confounding variables for stronger inference).

We find support for the notion that good citizens emerge as good leaders as well. Specifically, different citizenship behaviors lead to perceptions of transformational leadership and sometimes have opposite relationships to different types of transformational leadership. For example, although seemingly mundane, an employee who helps others emerges as a positive role model for other employees and as someone who shows interpersonal consideration, both important aspects of transformational leadership. We thus demonstrate that engaged employees who display OCB enhance transformational leadership in organizations from the bottom up.

Overall, our theory and findings call attention to employees as active participants in the leadership process, a non-traditional view that calls for far more attention to leadership in organizations from the bottom up rather than solely from the top down. From a practical perspective, leaders in organizations may be well-advised to focus on how to encourage their employees to engage in OCB, not only for the benefit of a more engaged workforce, but also to cultivate the leadership capabilities of their workforce.

The abstract for the article:

Research has demonstrated robust positive relationships between transformational leadership and employee attitudes and behaviors. To date, the preponderance of the literature has been leader-centric and focused on individuals who are already in leader roles. In this article, we adopt an employee-centric perspective and focus on behaviors of professionals who are not in formal leader roles. Specifically, we apply evolutionary theory as a theoretical lens for proposing that those who perform organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs) will be seen as transformational leaders. We hypothesize linkages between four types of OCBs and four dimensions of transformational leadership. Multi-source field sample results based on more than 1,000 participants provide general support for the predictions. We discuss theoretical and practical implications.

You can read the article, “Are Good Citizens Good Transformational Leaders as Well? An Employee-Centric Perspective on Transformational Leadership,” from Group & Organization Management free for the next two weeks by clicking here. Want to stay current on all of the latest research published by Group & Organization ManagementClick here to sign up for e-alerts, and click here to follow the journal on Twitter!

*Discussion image attributed to Cydcor (CC)