Tourism as a Tool for Peace and Revitalization in Afghanistan

Kabul MountainsMuch has been said on the tragedy and complications of war, more than can be expounded upon here. But considering the complexity of international conflict, it is not hard to understand that the transition from war to peace is far from a simple, fast process. War leaves a lasting impact on the countries and people involved, not only in terms of physical damage, but also psychological and social damage that in some ways can be much more difficult to heal. Undoubtedly, one of the questions that emerges after a conflict ends is how can two countries with recent conflict surmount persisting cultural ambiguity and negatives stereotypes? In the Journal of Travel Research article, “The Nutella Project: An Education Initiative to Suggest Tourism as a Means to Peace between the United States and Afghanistan,” authors Angela Durko and James Petrick of Texas A&M University consider tourism as a tool to promote peace and combat the lasting negative social impact of war.

The abstract:JTR_72ppiRGB_powerpoint

How different the world would be had countries not reopened their borders to
welcome tourists after conflict, thus providing opportunities for travelers to learn, understand, and overcome potential stereotypes and negative perceptions of a country’s residents and environment. This study reveals preliminary results of an education initiative focused on understanding, addressing, and overcoming negative perceptions, with the possibility of creating interest in, and opportunities for, a revitalization of tourism in Afghanistan. The study offers contact theory as a way to present organic images of a place to help create perceptions of destinations that are more accurate than induced images. Results revealed that contact theory, through intergroup dialogue between residents of two countries with noted historic conflict, provided the means for reducing cultural ambiguity and overcoming stereotypes. The findings offer implications for both the tourism and education sectors and suggest that intergroup dialogue may be key to increasing visit intentions and, most importantly, enhancing a destination’s image after conflict.

You can read “The Nutella Project: An Education Initiative to Suggest Tourism as a Means to Peace between the United States and Afghanistan” from Journal of Travel Research free for the next two weeks by clicking here. Want to know all about the latest research from Journal of Travel Research? Click here to sign up for e-alerts!

Diversify and Conquer: An Argument for Reinvigorating Marketing Science with Behavioral Science and Humanities

[We’re pleased to welcome Gerald Zaltman of Harvard Business School and Olson Zaltman Associates. Dr. Zaltman recently published an article in Cornell Hospitality Quarterly with co-authors Jerry Olson and James Forr of Olson Zaltman Associates, entitled “Toward a New Marketing Science for Hospitality Managers.”]

In “Toward a New Marketing Science for Hospitality Managers,” published in the Cornell Hospitality Quarterly, Jerry Olson, James Forr, and I point out that much of CQ_57_1_Cover.inddmarketing research and a great deal of marketing thought and action is influenced by the ideas and methods of an old marketing science.  We argue that a New Marketing Science is needed in which scientifically sound ideas and methods from the behavioral sciences and humanities are integrated around a coherent scientific perspective.  We feel this is especially important since life in the marketplace is experienced holistically and not in the silo like ways that companies, universities, and specific professions are organized.

Although current marketing does explore new ideas and methods, including neuro/biometric methods and big data approaches, these ideas are often treated piecemeal — used in isolation or as independent add-ons to more traditional work.  In contrast, we advocate integrating the best ideas and approaches from diverse fields to develop a new marketing science.  In “Toward a New Marketing Science” we focus on how key ideas from the mind sciences can produce a deeper and richer understanding of the minds of customers and also the minds of managers.  Other fields containing equally exciting marketing related advances include, linguistics, anthropology, sociology, philosophy, ethnomusicology, and art therapy, to name a few.

We provide four examples of applying a New Marketing Science approach to create emotionally resonant hospitality experiences.  However, the principles of a NMS can be applied to any marketing problem in any industry.  Practicing the NMS requires bold, imaginative thinking that goes beyond simple borrowing of ideas and imitation of best practices.

The abstract:

A New Marketing Science (NMS) is proposed that can dramatically improve a firm’s marketplace performance. The NMS challenges managers to dare to think and act differently. It generates deep insights into the thoughts and actions of both customers and managers and how the two mind-sets interact. As several examples illustrate, it departs from the “old” marketing science by its emphasis on imagination, knowing how and why a practice works, understanding the total customer experience, and focus on effectiveness over efficiency. The NMS is grounded in principles from the behavioral sciences and humanities such as the importance of the unconscious mind, the way mental frames serve as interpretative lenses, the centrality of emotions, the reconstructive nature of memory, and the importance of metaphor for learning about and influencing choices.

You can read “Toward a New Marketing Science for Hospitality Managers” from Cornell Hospitality Quarterly free for the next two weeks by clicking here. Want to know all about the latest research from Cornell Hospitality Quarterly? Click here to sign up for e-alerts!

Gerald ZaltmanGerald Zaltman is Founding partner in Olson Zaltman Associates and the Joseph C. Wilson Professor of Business Administration Emeritus at Harvard Business School, where he also was co-director of The Mind of the Market Laboratory. He has authored over 20 books including: How Customers Think: Essential Insights into the Mind of the Market and Marketing Metaphoria: What Deep Metaphors Reveal about the Minds of Consumers.

Jerry OlsonJerry Olson is Founding Partner in Olson Zaltman Associates and Professor Emeritus at Penn State University’s Smeal College of Business where he was Earl P. Strong Professor of Marketing and Department Chair. He has published more than 60 papers on these topics in conference proceedings and academic journals , including Journal of Consumer Research, Journal of Marketing Research, and Journal of Marketing.

James ForrJames Forr is a director at Olson Zaltman Associates. He has led projects for Fortune 100 clients including IBM, Bank of America, PepsiCo, and P&G along with non-profit and public sector clients such as the AFL-CIO and the Funeral Service Foundation.  He also has led two projects that have helped clients win prestigious Ogilvy Awards from the Advertising Research Foundation.


Don’t Miss the 2015 ICHRIE Summer Conference!

2015_ICHRIE_Conf_logoToday is the final day of the 2015 Annual International Council on Hotel, Restaurant, and Institutional Education (ICHRIE) Summer Conference in Orlando, Florida! The Annual Conference promises to be filled with new and innovative educational research, exciting displays at the ICHRIE Marketplace and numerous opportunities to take advantage of networking with members and guests.

International CHRIE continues to be the leader in providing a forum for and facilitating the exchange of knowledge, ideas, research, industry trends, products and services related to education, training and resource development for the hospitality, tourism and culinary arts industry. This exchange is noticeably prevalent through the energetic and thought-provoking dialogue which occurs at ICHRIE conferences and Federation meetings each year.

In honor of this conference, you can read the latest from these hospitality and tourism journals represented at ICHRIE for free for the next week!

2JHTR07_Covers.pdfThe Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research publishes original research, both conceptual and empirical, that clearly enhances the theoretical development of the hospitality and tourism field. The word contribution is key. JHTR encourages research based on a variety of methods, including both qualitative and quantitative approaches. To promote the exchange of current and innovative ideas, JHTR also includes a Research Notes and Industry Viewpoints section. Click here to read the latest issue.

cqx coverThe Cornell Hospitality Quarterly publishes theoretically rich, research articles that provide timely hospitality management implications for those involved or interested in the hospitality industry. The quarterly is a leading source for the latest research findings with strategic value addressing a broad range of topics that are relevant to hospitality, travel, and tourism. Click here to read the latest issue.

JTR_72ppiRGB_powerpointJournal of Travel Research is the premier, peer-reviewed research journal focusing on travel and tourism behavior, management and development. The first scholarly journal in North America focused exclusively on travel and tourism, JTR provides researchers, educators, and professionals with up-to-date, high quality, international and multidisciplinary research on behavioral trends and management theory for one of the most influential and dynamic industries. Click here to read the latest issue.

What Really Drives the Research Design?

Kwok, Linchi (In press). “Exploratory-triangulation design in mixed methods studies:  A case of examining graduating seniors who meet hospitality recruiters’ selection criteria.” Tourism and Hospitality Research.

Qualitative vs. quantitative: which method is better? If they are equally valuable in social science, will the mixed methods approach (employing both qualitative and quantitative techniques) prove to be superior to a single method approach?

There is an on-going discussion surrounding the use of qualitative, quantitative, or mixed methods in research studies. The biggest strength of the qualitative approach lies in its ability to yield descriptive, in-depth, and insightful data. As a result, frequency counts and numbers do not appear to be important in a qualitative study. Quantitative researchers, however, must rely on numbers to Untitleddraw conclusions. Mixed methods researchers suggest that research approaches should be mixed in the ways that offer the best opportunity to answer complex research questions.

While I agree there are many advantages of utilizing mixed methods in tourism and hospitality research, I argue that scholars should forget their research paradigms and allow the research question(s) to drive their research design. When designing a mixed methods study, researchers should think “outside the box” and be creative in collaborating qualitative and quantitative methods in different stages of the research process.

In this article, I introduce the exploratory-triangulation mixed methods approach to hospitality and tourism research by illustrating a specific empirical example of using such a design to answer tthrhree different but complementary questions on the same topic. Using the exploratory-triangulation mixed methods approach, hospitality recruiters’ selection criteria for entry-level managerial positions in college recruiting settings were explored and triangulated with the attributes of hospitality graduating seniors who receive job offers. It appears the exploratory-triangulation mixed methods approach allows researchers to examine a complex issue with different perspectives and thus provides a broader and a more complete picture of a phenomenon. The conclusions drawn from this exploratory-triangulation mixed method investigation also yielded stronger conclusions as compared to the qualitative or the quantitative results when reported separately.

I hoplinchi-kwok-2011_21e this paper will encourage more researchers to consider adopting the mixed methods approach in future studies and open up a discussion of using a variety of mixed methods designs in research. Researchers need not follow a typical research design. Rather, they need to be creative and let the research question(s) drive the research design.


Click here to read the paper in Tourism and Hospitality Research.

Linchi Kwok is an assistant professor of Hospitality Management in the David B. Falk College of Sport and Human Dynamics at Syracuse University and a contributor to Management INK.

Complete Holiday Experience: Call for Papers

A special issue of the Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Research has announced a new Call for Papers under the theme “Complete Holiday Experience – Perspectives from Asia.”

Christopher Seow
College of Tourism, Hainan University, China

Jochen Wirtz
NUS Business School, National University of Singapore

Anders Gustafsson
Karlstad University, Service Research Centre, Sweden

Anna S. Mattila
Pennsylvania State University

The hospitality and tourism industry is growing rapidly in Asia. Indeed, it is forecast to be the world’s largest tourist destination and tourist-generating region by 2020.

Research and practice in hospitality and tourism experiences in Asia is at the exploratory stage. To date, the services literature has tended to focus on either tourism or hospitality in isolation rather than considering potential overlaps and synergies between these two areas of research – especially when there is a focus on the ‘complete holiday experience’. In addition, research has been largely derived from Western tourist destinations or ‘westernised’ beach complexes, rather than considering the specific set of complexities for Asia’s service businesses when they seek to build and retain a customer base from home markets or attract both home and international tourists.

Therefore, this Special Issue in the Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Research aims to encourage Asia-specific research that is likely to require departures from existing tracks. In particular, it seeks to highlight research and practices surrounding service experience. Conceptual, empirical, case and industry-based research are welcome.

Manuscripts may deal with any of the following topics in the context of Asian cultures, and hospitality and tourism in Asia:

  • Crafting the Service Value proposition
  • Customer Satisfaction Related to Hospitality
  • Guest Loyalty
  • Communications and Social Media
  • Service Distribution
  • Pricing and Revenue Management
  • Personalising Experiences
  • Designing and Delivering Branded Service Experiences
  • Designing Servicescapes
  • Designing and Managing Customer Service Processes
  • Service Quality and Service Excellence
  • Service Breakdown and Service Recovery
  • Productivity, Efficiency and Effectiveness
  • Managing Service Personnel
  • Service Leadership
  • Asian and Western Cultures and Their Interactions with Service.

The submission and review process for this special issue will adopt author guidelines and review procedures as stipulated in the Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Research. Please click here for more information. The deadline for submission of manuscripts is 31 August 2013.

To learn more about the Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Research, please follow this link.

Are you interested in receiving email alerts whenever a new article or issue becomes available? Then click here!

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Casinos Get Strategic: Revenue Management for Table Games

Michael Chen of the Ontario Lottery & Gaming Corporation, Henry Tsai of The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, and Shiang-Lih Chen McCain of Widener University published “A Revenue Management Model for Casino Table Games” on February 28, 2012 in Cornell Hospitality Quarterly. To view other OnlineFirst articles, please click here. Dr. Tsai kindly provided the following responses to the article.

Who Is The Target Audience For This Article?

The target audience is casino managers, management consultants, operations analysts, casino management system developers, researcher / academia in casino management field.

What Inspired You To Be Interested In This Topic?

The application of yield management theory on hotel industry has been well researched. As a matter of fact, many hotel operators have put yield management theory into practice to improve profitability. On the other hand, very little research literature is available on how to apply yield management theory on table games operations.

Essentially, hotel operations and table game operations are very similar. Both sell rights to use the facility for a given period of time – hotel operators sell rights to use the hotel room whereas table game operators sell rights to occupy a table game seat. Both have a perishable inventory –the value of a hotel room for today is gone forever if it cannot be sold by today while the value of a table game seat for this hour is gone forever if it isn’t occupied by a table games player by this hour.

The difficulty of applying yield management theory on table game operations is the pricing, a critical component of the yield management theory. One subtle difference between hotel operations and table game operations is how they price their products. Most hotel clients, other than those who purchase through, know the exact price before their purchasing decision. On the other hand, neither the table game operators nor the table game players know the exact price of playing table games before the consumption is over. It could be $5,000 an hour – the table game player lost $5,000 to the casino after one hour of play. It could also be $50 an hour. Sometimes it could even be a negative price – the table game player wins from the casino after one hour of play. Though casino operators don’t know for sure how much revenue they can get by selling table games seats for any given hour, casino operators do know, in the long run, the expected value of price for selling table games seats. The measurement used by casino operator to gauge the expected value of table game price is called theoretical win.

All three authors, two professors in hotel management field and one practitioner in the casino industry, have a thorough understanding of hotel yield management theory as well as table games pricing , thanks to the casino management courses they took when studying at UNLV. Knowing few researches have been done on this field, few table games operators have actually applied yield management on daily operations, and the potential profitability improvement yield management approach can bring to the casino industry, the authors decided to conduct a research on this topic to develop a pragmatic approach that can be easily adopted by table game operators.

Were There Findings That Were Surprising To You?

Yes and no. While we expected that, generally speaking, the application of our revenue management model would yield better results for table game operations, we thought that our approach might be less effective during the off-peak hours – measured by the percentage of incremental theoretical win (revenue). The results show otherwise. This approach is effective both during the peak hours and during the off-peak hours.

How Do You See This Study Influencing Future Research And/Or Practice?

One obstacle prevents casino operators from applying analytics to improve profit margin of table game operations is the table games data accuracy. Most data used in this study, such as average wager, spots (seats) occupied, was based on table games supervisors’ observations, which is subject to human errors. However, the advancement in technology, such as RFID-enabled casino chips, or sensors embedded in casino tables to track cards movement, may enable casino operators to capture all the required data electronically in a more reliable way. Just like slots analytics are widely applied to improve the profit margin of slots operations, once casino operators are assured that they are getting reliable table game data, they are more likely to apply table game analytics to improve the profit margin of table game operations. The results of this research may support practitioners to justify why adopting new table games technology is necessary for the casinos when writing capital budget business cases.

Once casino operators can acquire reliable table games data efficiently, we may see more casino operators apply revenue management on their table game operations. Some table games management system may even have a built-in revenue management module. On the other hand, as more researchers are interested in this topic, we may see future researches that focus on increasing forecasting accuracy to increase the revenue management effectiveness.

How Does This Study Fit Into Your Body Of Work/Line Of Research?

This study represents our first joint effort in looking into table game revenue enhancement, which could lead to future research in revenue management in other game types or in conjunction with hotel revenue management for casino hotels.

How Did Your Paper Change During The Review Process?

We appreciated the constructive comments given by the three reviewers, which helped us better the quality of our paper. We revised majority of the paper including introduction, literature review, results and discussions and the conclusion. Especially, we focused our literature review on the applications of revenue management in the casino industry. We also expanded the test period — from one hour to 24 consecutive hours – to test the effectiveness of the proposed yield management approach.

What, If Anything, Would You Do Differently If You Could Go Back And Do This Study Again?

While our proposed model could be applied to other table games, we could collect more data on more types of games and compare the results to further validate our model.

To learn more about Cornell Hospitality Quarterly, please follow this link.

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2011 Annual ICHRIE Summer Conference

“All members are invited to join ICHRIE (International Council on Hotel, Restaurant, and Institutional Education) for the 2011 Annual Summer Conference & Marketplace in Denver, Colorado from 27-30 July 2011 at the Grand Hyatt Denver. The 2011 conference will be filled with informative presentations, the latest in educational research, exciting displays at the ICHRIE Marketplace and lots of networking opportunities for members and guests to reconnect.”

Three of SAGE’s ranked journals, Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research (JHTR), Journal of Travel Research (JTR), and Cornell Hospitality Quarterly (CQ), will be represented.

The Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research recently received an Impact Factor of 0.653 and was ranked 21 out of 31 in Hospitality, Leisure, Sport & Tourism.

The Journal of Travel Research was given an Impact Factor of 1.549 and was ranked 5 out of 31 in Hospitality, Leisure, Sport & Tourism.

Cornell Hospitality Quarterly received an Impact Factor of 0.549 and was ranked 84 out of 129 in Sociology, 113 out of 140 in Management, and 24 out of 31 in Hospitality, Leisure, Sport & Tourism.

For more information on these or other SAGE journals, please click here.

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