The Stress of Cyber Incivility at Work

5630090047_5922a8afeb_zCyber bullying has been an emerging issue in recent years, and recent news, like the recent suicide of firefighter Nicole Mittendorff, have brought to light just how pervasive and harmful cyber bullying can be in the workplace. A recent article published in Journal of Management, entitled “Daily Cyber Incivility and Distress: The Moderating Roles of Resources at Work and Home” from authors YoungAh Park, Charlotte Fritz, and Steve M. Jex delves into the topic of cyber incivility, pinpointing how cyber incivility can cause lasting distress in employees. The abstract for the paper:

Given that many employees use e-mail for work communication on a daily basis, this study examined within-person relationships between day-level incivility via work e-mail (cyber incivility) and employee outcomes. Using resource-based theories, we Current Issue Coverexamined two resources (i.e., job control, psychological detachment from work) that may alleviate the effects of cyber incivility on distress. Daily survey data collected over 4 consecutive workdays from 96 employees were analyzed using hierarchical linear modeling. Results showed that on days when employees experienced cyber incivility, they reported higher affective and physical distress at the end of the workday that, in turn, was associated with higher distress the next morning. Job control attenuated the concurrent relationships between cyber incivility and both types of distress at work, while psychological detachment from work in the evening weakened the lagged relationships between end-of-workday distress and distress the following morning. These findings shed light on cyber incivility as a daily stressor and on the importance of resources in both the work and home domains that can help reduce the incivility-related stress process. Theoretical and practical implications, limitations, and future research directions are discussed.

You can read “Daily Cyber Incivility and Distress: The Moderating Roles of Resources at Work and Home” from Journal of Management free for the next two weeks by clicking here. Want to keep current on all of the latest research from Journal of ManagementClick here to sign up for e-alerts!

*Image attributed to Mislav Marohnic (CC)

Boss Abuse and the Consequences of Subordinate Payback

13122955635_0c7b063aec_zHow do employees respond to boss abuse? A new article published in Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, entitled “Boss Abuse and Subordinate Payback,” by author Harvey A. Hornstein suggests that up to 60% of subordinates retaliate in some way following boss abuse. The article finds not only are the consequences of subordinate retaliation not all bad, some of the consequences can benefit the subordinate, the organization, and the abusing boss. The abstract for the paper:

After re-confirming an earlier finding that as many as 60% of subordinates retaliate Current Issue Coverin major and minor ways after suffering a boss’s abuse, using data from 100 participants, this investigation identified the characteristics of successful (the abuse is discontinued) and unsuccessful retaliation. Without arguing that retribution is the response of choice to boss abuse, evidence is presented showing that well-crafted retaliation often produces benefits for the abused subordinate, the organization, and even the abusive boss. Action steps that might guide crafting an abused employee’s response to a boss’s abuse are provided as well as directions for future research.

You can read “Boss Abuse and Subordinate Payback” from Journal of Applied Behavioral Science free for the next two weeks by clicking here. Want to know all about the latest research from Journal of Applied Behavioral ScienceClick here to sign up for e-alerts!

*Employees image attributed to FTTUB (CC)

 

The Workplace Bully is Not Always a Lone Wolf

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[We are pleased to feature a post from the LSE Business Review website, originally posted here, on the Journal of Leadership and Organization article “Alpha and Omega: When Bullies Run in Packs” written by Patricia A. Meglich and Andra Gumbus. You can read the full article free for the next two weeks by clicking here.]

In today’s competitive organisations, it is all too common for bullies to act out in the workplace. Many of us have either been victimised or witnessed a co-worker being bullied. This is more common than illegal forms of harassment (based on things such as race, sex, or age). The costs to companies that allow the situation to go unchecked are substantial. Many workers quit their jobs to escape the abuse. Some take medical leave. And many suffer ill health as a result. Co-workers that witness bullying are less productive and engaged in their work.

This type of abuse isn’t typically a one-time occurrence. Rather, it is an ongoing campaign of attacks against the target, who is usually unable to defend him or herself effectively. What does workplace bullying look like? While it usually doesn’t include a physical attack, there are many ways in which the target can be abused. The target may be ignored or socially isolated from the rest of the work group. Hateful, untrue rumours may be spread about the target, or the individual may be publicly humiliated, belittled, or made the butt of jokes. The bully tries to tear down the target’s self-esteem and may interfere with his or her work, sabotaging the target in order to get the target “in trouble” with management.

The abusers are often the target’s direct supervisor. But co-workers also mistreat others in the work group. Much of the research on workplace abuse assumes that the bully operates alone, as a lone wolf. The study we conducted focused on the “wolf pack” occurrence, when several members of the work group gang up on the target. When this happens, the target experiences almost relentless abuse because there is always someone tormenting him or her. Imagine how much worse it would be to have the whole work unit undermine and abuse you; there would be no escape. Your workdays would be filled with verbal and emotional harassment and you would be hard-pressed to attend to your work duties.

In our research, we found that if the supervisor is a bully, then co-workers are also more likely to mistreat others. It makes a lot of sense; people want the boss to like them. What better way to win the boss’s favour than to join in on the bullying and abuse of the worker that the boss has targeted? Supervisors set the culture for the work group and many people seek to “fit in” with the established standards for behaviour.

We surveyed over 500 people and found that when the boss is the bully, workers feel that the harm is greater than when one of their co-workers is the tormenter. That is not especially surprising. If only one co-worker bullies the target, it is harmful but not nearly as harmful as when the supervisor is the attacker. The most interesting finding from our study, however, was that being abused by a group of co-workers is not judged to be as harmful as being abused by a supervisor. Being tormented by one’s supervisor trumps all other forms of bullying, even the collective assault from many co-workers in the work unit. When the boss is the bully, targets suffer the greatest consequences.

This should be a wake-up call to anyone in a management or supervisory role. Your behaviour is contagious and has a major impact on how employees feel about their work environment. You are a role model and others will “follow the leader”. Remember that your actions are powerful! Your direct reports will experience productive, joyful work lives or lead tortured, unsatisfactory work lives in large measure based on how you treat them. Check your behaviour to be sure you are modelling respectful conduct that you would be proud for your team members to follow.

 

Notes:


Patricia MeglichPatricia A. Meglich is Associate Professor of Management at University of Nebraska, Omaha. Before entering academia, she worked as the Director of Human Resources for Carlisle Engineered Products in Ohio. Her research interests include the study of dysfunctional workplace behaviour; specifically workplace bullying and abusive supervision. She has also studied virtual collaboration processes.

Andra GumbusAndra Gumbus is Professor of Management at Sacred Heart University, in Connecticut. Her research interest is in the field of human resource management and how people contribute to the success of the organisation. Workplace culture, management style and measurement of performance are other areas of professional interest.

Read Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies November Issue!

JLOS_72ppiRGB_powerpointThe November 2015 issue of Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies is now available to read for free for the next 30 days! In addition to regular issue articles, this edition includes a section with Midwest Academy of Management Special Issue Articles. Articles include interviews with Fred Luthans and Andrew H. Van de Ven as well as papers by Charles C. Snow, Mark J. Martinko, and recent SAGE book author Terri A. Scandura.

The lead article entitled “Alpha and Omega: When Bullies Run in Packs” was authored by Patricia A. Meglich of University of Nebraska at Omaha and Andra Gumbus of Sacred Heart University. You can read the abstract here:

While workplace bullying often involves multiple perpetrators, limited research has investigated this important aspect of the phenomenon. In the present study, we explored the perceived severity and comparison of actual behaviors experienced when different perpetrators attack the target. Survey results showed that bullying by one’s supervisor is perceived to be more severe than bullying by a group of coworkers and that coworkers are more likely to bully when the supervisor bullies. When working as a group, bullies focus their attack on the target’s personal life rather than on his or her work life. Implications for research and practice are provided.

Click here to access the Table of Contents of the November Issue of Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies. Want to know about all the latest from Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies? Click here to sign up for e-alerts!

Workplace Harassment Back in the News

With the widely publicized U.S. National Football League (NFL) harassment scandal and the release of the Wells Report once again putting the spotlight on bullying and harassment in the workplace, it seems like an appropriate time to rerun this post from October. Whether it’s found in the locker room, the boardroom or the lunchroom, intolerance and bullying behavior affect individuals, teams, schools and companies, regardless of their size or status. The articles below are open until March 15.

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October is Bullying Prevention Awareness Month and unfortunately the workplace is not immune to this form of abuse. We often think of bullying among children, but  studies show it is all too common in the workplace as well.  In 2010, a report commissioned by the Workplace Bullying Institute showed 35% of the U.S. workforce, representing an estimated 53.5 million Americans, reported experiencing workplace bullying at some point in their careers.

What does current research have to say about workplace bullying? In order to support the dissemination of this important research, SAGE is offering the following selected journal articles on workplace bullying free for a limited time:

For more articles, information and news from SAGE Management, follow us on Twitter @SAGEManagement.

Bullying in the Workplace

October is Bullying Prevention Awareness Month and unfortunately the workplace is not immune to this form of abuse. We often think of bullying among children, but  studies show it is all too common in the workplace as well.  In 2010, a report commissioned by the Workplace Bullying Institute showed 35% of the U.S. workforce, representing an estimated 53.5 million Americans, reported experiencing workplace bullying at some point in their careers.

What does current research have to say about workplace bullying? In order to support the dissemination of this important research, SAGE is offering the following selected journal articles on workplace bullying free for a limited time:

October is Free-Trial month at SAGE. Receive free access to these journals and more here.

Putting a Face on Bullying in the Workplace

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“The Bully Effect” premiers Thursday, Feb. 28
at 10 p.m. ET on cnn.com

In recent years, research and documentaries have brought the issue of bullying to the forefront of the American conscience by illustrating the heartbreaking impact that it can have in schools and in the workplace. As a result, a national movement has taken off, forcing children, parents, teachers and those in the workplace to examine this cruel and dangerous practice and find ways to put a stop to it. Recently published scholarly articles show that researchers too are examining what’s behind bullying and offering illuminating insights that provide avenues for future research, practical helps for intervention, and potential implications for policy.

How to address bullying is an issue that is incredibly pertinent to our modern-day society. With today’s  premier of “The Bully Effect,” a new documentary illustrating the effects of bullying and the “life-changing journeys” that families go through when dealing with these issues,  it is clear that bullying is an issue that we as a society need to better understand in order to help those who are affected.

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Click to read the latest
research on workplace bullying
from SAGE Publications

In order to support the dissemination of this important research, SAGE is offering the following journal articles on workplace bullying free for a limited time:

For a more complete listing of SAGE offerings on bullying, please click here.