Resident Attribution and Tourist Stereotypes

[We’re pleased to welcome authors Cathy H. C. Hsu and Nan Chen of the Hong Kong Polytechnic University. They recently published an article in the Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research entitled “Resident Attribution and Tourist Stereotypes,” which is currently free to read for a limited time. Below, they briefly describe their research and its significance.

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From 2003 to 2015, Hong Kong (HK) saw a more than five-fold increase in mainland Chinese tourist (MCT) arrivals. With a population of 7.3 million, HK residents had to share their limited living space with 59 million tourists, of whom 77% came from mainland China. The tension between HK residents and MCTs has increased substantially. The negative public opinion on MCTs reached its peak with a series of “anti-locust” protests in early 2014. Protesters staged satirical rallies to urge MCTs to go home. In 2015, HK saw the first decline (-2.97% compared to 2014) in over a decade in MCT arrivals. The ensuing Umbrella Movement has been regarded as a panoply of identity politics and civic passions, some of which was anti-China/Chinese.

In various popular tourism destinations around the world, anti-tourist sentiment has been expressed by residents whose lives have been inconvenienced to say the least. Over-tourism has become a popular discussion topic in the news and social media. Mainland Chinese outbound travelers have dominated the tourist arrival growth in many countries and become an important source market internationally. Along with the rapid increase in tourist numbers, reports of Chinese tourists’ lavish and sometimes unruly behaviors become the media headlines from time to time in many countries. The tourism research community has just begun to address all these unconventional phenomena. These events stimulated our curiosity in the host community’s stereotypes toward a dominant tourist group, aiming to develop counter-stereotype strategies through a comprehensive study of the generation, content, and consequence of tourist stereotypes.

This conceptual paper represents a first attempt to link attribution and stereotypes by identifying interactions between each step of the two cognitive processes, in the context of resident-tourist encounters. It pioneers in establishing conceptual links between a tourism phenomenon and the social psychology theoretical development, through a thorough literature review and the proposed conceptual framework of tourist stereotypes and resident attribution.

This paper also broadens the research paradigm of resident-tourist relationships. Attribution theory not only offers a special lens through which to peek the complex and dynamic resident-tourist relations, but also provides an opportunity to test a new framework through the integration of tourist stereotypes, thus leading tourism scholars toward greater theory development and testing. The comprehensive model proposed in this research can serve as a productive meta-theoretical framework – not only giving an account of existing knowledge in social psychology and tourism, but also generating fruitful research questions that can enhance our understanding. This comprehensive framework needs to be tested urgently using empirical data. The complex relationships among the variables in the model pointed out directions for future research and provided many potential opportunities.

In addition, attribution studies need to move out of the “social vacuum” psychological laboratory, entering the real and complicated social settings to be further developed. The complex and dynamic resident-tourist encounter settings could overcome the constraints imposed by laboratory experiments, and broaden the scope and depth of attributional research, to address the recognized deficiencies of attribution theory outlined in this paper.

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Defining Marijuana Tourism

Dr. Lorraine L. Taylor of Fort Lewis College, Colorado, recently published an article in the Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Research, which is entitled “Defining Marijuana Tourism.” We are pleased to welcome her as a contributor and excited to announce that the findings will be free to access on our site for a limited time. Below Dr. Taylor reveals the inspiration behind the research, as well as additional information not included in the final publication.

2JHTR07_Covers.pdfWhat motivated you to pursue this research?

As the first state to sell legal recreational marijuana in 2014, there were many unanswered questions. Within the tourism industry, destinations were unsure how marijuana would impact the visitor experience. While there are certainly many questions to be answered, this study sought to better understand the marijuana tourists, their characteristics, behavior, and motivations.

What has been the most challenging aspect of conducting your research? Were there any surprising findings?

Compared to other tourism research I have completed, this study had a very high response rate from participants. Very few people refused to participate, and rather wanted to contribute to the understanding of marijuana tourism.

In what ways is your research innovative, and how do you think it will impact the field?

Researchers in Colorado had the privilege of being first movers with studying marijuana tourism, though it is critical that data is collected in other geographical locations to validate the findings.

What did not make it into your published manuscript that you would like to share with us?

This project determined that the target market of marijuana tourists is heterogenous. A follow-up study will be conducted to dig deeper into the nuances of different niche segments within the market.

Stay up-to-date with the latest research through the homepage!

 

 

Hyperbolic Perceptions of Black-White Tipping Differences

Jar_for_tips_at_a_restaurant_in_New_JerseyDr. Zachary Brewster and Dr. Gerald Roman Nowak III of Wayne State University recently published an article in Cornell Hospitality Quarterly, which is entitled “Racial Prejudices, Racialized Workplaces, and Restaurant Servers’ Hyperbolic Perceptions of Black-White Tipping Differences.” We are pleased to welcome him as a contributor and excited to announce that the findings will be free to access on our site for a limited time. Below Dr. Brewster reveals the inspiration behind the research, as well as additional information not included in the final publication.

cqx .jpgWhile a fair and growing number of studies have observed statistically significant Black-White differences in tipping, the size of the estimated difference has varied greatly across studies. As such, it is not readily clear how much less Black customers on average actually tip their servers when compared to Whites. Further, there have been no studies published that have seriously interrogated the accuracy of servers’ perceptions of the Black-White tipping differential.  In fact, the existence of a Black-White difference in tipping is often taken as prima facie evidence that servers’ perceptions are generally accurate. Moreover, studies that aim to identify and test for individual and/or environmental factors that encourage the development and sustainment of exaggerated perceptions of Black-White tipping differences are lacking. These shortcoming in the literature on interracial differences in tipping motivated us to pursue this particular piece of research.

More generally, we were motivated to advance this line of inquiry because of the many implications surrounding servers’ perceptions of interracial differences in tipping practices—not the least of which is the threat that such differences pose to customer service. The majority of times that Black consumers visit a full-service restaurant they are likely to receive good service. However, when this is not the case, when Black customers are given a level of service that is less than should reasonably be expected, or even outright poor, it will inevitably sometimes stem from servers’ negativity towards these customers’ tipping practices. To curtail this threat to Blacks’ dining experiences scholars have advocated for initiatives that aim to increase Black Americans’ awareness and adherence to the U.S. norm prescribing that customers leave a tip that is equivalent to 15% – 20% of their bill if the service was acceptable. If Black Americans were as familiar with the 15% – 20% tipping norm as Whites, racial tipping differences would logically be attenuated.

However, our findings indicate that any initiative that is intended to curtail race-based customer service will necessarily have to be targeted towards changing servers’ perceptions as much as, if not more than, changing consumers’ tipping behaviors.  For instance, while a Black-White tipping difference does appear to exist (as a percentage of the bill we estimate the difference to be about 3.3 percentage points) our results underscore a segment of the population of restaurant servers who cognitively exaggerate the magnitude of this difference. Racially prejudiced servers as well as those who work in racialized workplaces are, in particular, likely to overstate the difference between Black and White customers’ actual tipping practices. Thus, to curtail the industry challenges that stem from Black-White tipping differences (e.g., service discrimination, lawsuits, etc.) we encourage restaurant operators to devise strategies to attenuate the individual and environmental manifestations of the racial prejudice that underpins servers’ stereotypic perceptions of Black customers’ tipping behaviors.

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Tip Jar photo attributed to Free-Photo (CC)

 

An Update on Tourism Economics

SAGE Publishing is very pleased to welcome Albert Assaf from the University of Massachusetts, and Raffaele Scuderi (Kore University of Enna) who have joined as the new Editors of Tourism Economics, taking over from Stephen Wanhill who remains as Editor Emeritus and an active member of the editorial board.

Tourism Economics covers the business aspects of tourism in the wider context. It takes account of constraints on development, such as social and community interests and the sustainable use of tourism and recreation resources, and inputs into the production process. The definition of tourism used includes tourist trips taken for all purposes, embracing both stay and day visitors.

teua_23_7.coverAlbert and Raffale have recently done a revamp of the article types that can be submitted to Tourism Economics including the addition of new research article types; including a new Invited Commentary article. More information can be found here. These articles are usually invited by the editor and represent a short opinion or discussion about some on-going topics or debates in the tourism economic literature, but potential authors are welcome to submit a commentary article proposal to the editors, indicating the topic, a detailed abstract,
to the editors via e-mail: Albert Assaf assaf@isenberg.umass.edu or Raffaele Scuderi raffaele.scuderi@unikore.it

Tourism Economics also has several ongoing special issues which the editors encourage you to submit to:
Special Issue: “Economic implications of coporate social responsibility and sustainability in tourism and hospitality
Special Issue: “Spatial economics and tourism development
Special Issue: “Tourism Forecasting: New Trends and Issues

Welcome, Albert and Raffaele to the editorship of Tourism Economics!

Marketing for Tourism, Hospitality & Events

SAGE Publishing would like to highlight one of the newer textbooks that provides a foundation of basic marketing principles applied to global tourism. The book, Marketing for Tourism, Hospitality & Events, is co-authored by Simon Hudson of the University of South Carolina and Louise Hudson who is an Independent Researcher.80886_9781473926646

The book is complimented by a companion website featuring a range of tools and resources for lecturers and students, including PowerPoint slides, an instructor manual, a test bank of multiple choice questions, and author-curated video links to make the examples in each chapter come to life. Below is a featured video supplement where David Edelman explains how companies can now shape the consumer decision journey:

Click here to preview the book, as well as view other content topics and resources.

Interested in other tourism topics? Click below to view SAGE’s journals that publish the latest research in the field:

Journal of Travel Research
Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research
Journal of Service Research
Cornell Hospitality Quarterly

A Review of Adventure Tourism Literature

25451482464_a4c1837cac_z[We are pleased to welcome Mingming Cheng of UTS Business School. Mingming recently published an article in Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research entitled “A Tri-Method Approach to a Review of Adventure Tourism Literature: Bibliometric Analysis and a Quantitative Systematic Literature Review” with co-authors Deborah Edwards, Simon Darcy, and Kylie Redfern.]

  • What inspired you to be interested in this topic?

When I conducted my literature review at the start of my doctoral study, I realised that the current methods in reviewing literature are mainly with narrative analysis. These reviews are usually conducted by leading experts in a particular field. However, such reviews are highly subjective and might have a range of potential biases. Current Issue CoverParticularly, it seems nearly impossible for me as a young researcher to replicate their studies. Sometimes, I wondered how they have drawn a certain conclusion. Along the way, I realised that some researchers use a systematic review approach that identifies the key categories with the literature to provide a generalization but still it is unclear where the current literature comes from, and who and what theories influence the field. In addition, I also noticed that there are a considerable number of researchers using bibliometric methods to identity the knowledge base and intellectual structure of a particularly field. However, similar questions came to me again: bibilometric methods could not identity whether the argument is supportive or offers a critique. Thus, I wondered what if I combine them together, would it yield different outcomes?

As such, based on previous work and particularly inspired by one of my colleagues’ work (Randawa, Wilden & Hohberger, 2016), we utilized the strengths of three different methods to advance previous reviews on a particular field (adventure tourism in this study) via a more, systematic, objective and integrated review of its literature. Our approach identifies the theoretical foundations, key themes and the conceptual boundary of a particular field.

  • Were there findings that were surprising to you?

The findings are very surprising to us as we discovered something that have been overlooked in the literature and this helps us clearly identify future opportunities for emerging research areas. The combination of biblometric methods, content analysis and a quantitative systematic literature review approach gives our researchers multiple lenses to the current literature. In particular, the bibliometric and content analysis in our study shows that adventure tourism still has a great reliance on established disciplines for theories, such as flow theory, edge work, and reversal theory. As such, despite the gradually changing focus (e.g. destination development and impact) and new methods of investigation (e.g. auto-ethnography), scholarship in this field is relatively immature compared to many other tourism areas. As such, future opportunities exist for better integration of other relevant theories through disciplinary, multi-disciplinary, interdisciplinary, trans-disciplinary and contextual field with adventure tourism research.

  • How do you see this study influencing future research and/or practice?

From an academic point of view, our research provides a clear-cut picture of the adventure tourism literature by understanding its theoretical movement, key themes and its conceptual boundary. Thus, it enables our researchers to visibly position ourselves in the literature to detect potential new directions as well as to locate their work within the field. From a methodological perspective, it advances extant methodological literature on the review of literature by analyzing the field in a holistic, objective and integrated manner that helps reduce the bias that is often related to traditional literature review methods and expert interviews. From a practical perspective, it can serve as an introduction to a rapidly evolving adventure tourism field for students and practitioners.

The abstract for the paper:

This article provides an objective, systematic, and integrated review of the Western academic literature on adventure tourism to discover the theoretical foundations and key themes underlying the field by combining three complementary approaches of bibliometric analysis, content analysis, and a quantitative systematic review. A total of 114 publications on adventure tourism were identified that revealed three broad areas of foci with adventure tourism research: (1) adventure tourism experience, (2) destination planning and development, and (3) adventure tourism operators. Adventure tourism has an intellectual tradition from multiple disciplines, such as the social psychology of sport and recreation. There is an underrepresentation of studies examining non-Western tourists in their own geographic contexts or non-Western tourists in Western geographic contexts. Our findings pave ways for developing a more robust framework and holistic understanding of the adventure tourism field.

You can read “A Tri-Method Approach to a Review of Adventure Tourism Literature: Bibliometric Analysis and a Quantitative Systematic Literature Review” from Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research free for the next two weeks by clicking here. Want to stay current on all the latest research from Journal of Hospitality & Tourism ResearchClick here to sign up for e-alerts!

*Kayak image attributed to Matt Zimmerman (CC)

The Role of Collaboration in Tourism Research

5053443202_bfa18dab8b_z[We’re pleased to welcome Gang Li of Deakin University. Gang recently published an article in Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research entitled “Temporal Analysis of Tourism Research Collaboration Network” with co-authors Wei Fan of Hong Kong Polytechnic University and Rob Law of Hong Kong Polytechnic University.]

Network analysis is an effective tool for the study of relationships among individual, including the relationships among researchers. We would like to investigate the changes of importance of individual researchers in collaboration networks of tourism research over time, which may help to obtain better understanding of collaboration to promote the progress of research.

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We proposed to evaluate the importance of researchers by considering both productivity and their contribution to the connectivity of collaboration networks.  In network analysis, centrality measures can reflect the importance of nodes in a network and degree and betweenness are two commonly used centrality measures in previous studies. This study found that betweenness centrality is better than degree centrality in terms of reflecting the changes of importance of researchers.

Information about the evolution of collaboration network and the changes of each researcher can be provided withthe method proposed in this study. With further research on topic analysis of published articles, the proposed method may help to explore trends in tourism and hospitality research. Moreover, this work provides an alternative method to utilize centrality measure in network analysis.

The abstract for the paper:

Network analysis is an effective tool for the study of collaboration relationships among researchers. Collaboration networks constructed from previous studies, and their changes over time have been studied. However, the impact of individual researchers in collaboration networks has not been investigated systematically. We introduce a new method of measuring the contribution of researchers to the connectivity of collaboration networks and evaluate the importance of researchers by considering both contribution and productivity. Betweenness centrality is found to be better than degree centrality in terms of reflecting the changes of importance of researchers. Accordingly, a method is further proposed to identify key researchers at certain periods. The performance of the identified researchers demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed method.

You can read “Temporal Analysis of Tourism Research Collaboration Network” from Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research free for the next two weeks by clicking here. Want to know all about the latest research from Journal of Hospitality & Tourism ResearchClick here to sign up for e-alerts!

*Image attributed to US Embassy (CC)