Hyperbolic Perceptions of Black-White Tipping Differences

Jar_for_tips_at_a_restaurant_in_New_JerseyDr. Zachary Brewster and Dr. Gerald Roman Nowak III of Wayne State University recently published an article in Cornell Hospitality Quarterly, which is entitled “Racial Prejudices, Racialized Workplaces, and Restaurant Servers’ Hyperbolic Perceptions of Black-White Tipping Differences.” We are pleased to welcome him as a contributor and excited to announce that the findings will be free to access on our site for a limited time. Below Dr. Brewster reveals the inspiration behind the research, as well as additional information not included in the final publication.

cqx .jpgWhile a fair and growing number of studies have observed statistically significant Black-White differences in tipping, the size of the estimated difference has varied greatly across studies. As such, it is not readily clear how much less Black customers on average actually tip their servers when compared to Whites. Further, there have been no studies published that have seriously interrogated the accuracy of servers’ perceptions of the Black-White tipping differential.  In fact, the existence of a Black-White difference in tipping is often taken as prima facie evidence that servers’ perceptions are generally accurate. Moreover, studies that aim to identify and test for individual and/or environmental factors that encourage the development and sustainment of exaggerated perceptions of Black-White tipping differences are lacking. These shortcoming in the literature on interracial differences in tipping motivated us to pursue this particular piece of research.

More generally, we were motivated to advance this line of inquiry because of the many implications surrounding servers’ perceptions of interracial differences in tipping practices—not the least of which is the threat that such differences pose to customer service. The majority of times that Black consumers visit a full-service restaurant they are likely to receive good service. However, when this is not the case, when Black customers are given a level of service that is less than should reasonably be expected, or even outright poor, it will inevitably sometimes stem from servers’ negativity towards these customers’ tipping practices. To curtail this threat to Blacks’ dining experiences scholars have advocated for initiatives that aim to increase Black Americans’ awareness and adherence to the U.S. norm prescribing that customers leave a tip that is equivalent to 15% – 20% of their bill if the service was acceptable. If Black Americans were as familiar with the 15% – 20% tipping norm as Whites, racial tipping differences would logically be attenuated.

However, our findings indicate that any initiative that is intended to curtail race-based customer service will necessarily have to be targeted towards changing servers’ perceptions as much as, if not more than, changing consumers’ tipping behaviors.  For instance, while a Black-White tipping difference does appear to exist (as a percentage of the bill we estimate the difference to be about 3.3 percentage points) our results underscore a segment of the population of restaurant servers who cognitively exaggerate the magnitude of this difference. Racially prejudiced servers as well as those who work in racialized workplaces are, in particular, likely to overstate the difference between Black and White customers’ actual tipping practices. Thus, to curtail the industry challenges that stem from Black-White tipping differences (e.g., service discrimination, lawsuits, etc.) we encourage restaurant operators to devise strategies to attenuate the individual and environmental manifestations of the racial prejudice that underpins servers’ stereotypic perceptions of Black customers’ tipping behaviors.

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Tip Jar photo attributed to Free-Photo (CC)

 

The Warm Glow of Restaurant Checkout Charity: Do You Participate?

5390059375_4cb242cbbc_z.jpgIt’s often seen and experienced that retail stores, restaurants, and supermarkets ask for a donation to the cause of the season when you checkout. How often do you donate and agree to that $1-$5 on the pin pad? If you do donate, do you feel like an avid supporter of both the store you’re shopping at and the featured charity? Researchers and authors Michael Giebelhausen, Benjamin Lawrence, HaeEun Helen Chun, and Liwu Hsu go so far as to say people feel a “warm glow” when agreeing to donate on a whim.

They recently published an article in Cornell Hospitality Quarterly entitled, “The Warm Glow of Restaurant Checkout Charity,” which is currently free to read for a limited time. The abstract for this article is below:

Checkout charity is a phenomenon whereby frontline employees (or self-service technologies) solicit charitable donations from customers during the payment process. Despite its growing ubiquity, little is known about this salient aspect of the service experience. The present research examines checkout charity in the context of fast-food restaurants and finds that, when customers donate, they experience a “warm glow” that mediates a relationship between donating and store repatronage. Study 1 utilizes three scenario-based experiments to explore the phenomenon across different charities and different participant populations using both self-selection and random assignment designs. Study 2 replicates with a field study. Study 3 examines national store–level sales data from a fast-food chain and finds that checkout fund-raising, as a percentage of sales, predicts store revenue—a finding consistent with results of Studies 1 and 2. Managers often infer, quite correctly, that many consumers do not like being asked to donate. Paradoxically, our results suggest this ostensibly negative experience can increase service repatronage. For academics, these results add to a growing body of literature refuting the notion that small prosocial acts affect behavior by altering an individual’s self-concept.

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Donation box photo attributed to Zhu (CC).

 

The Role of Collaboration in Tourism Research

5053443202_bfa18dab8b_z[We’re pleased to welcome Gang Li of Deakin University. Gang recently published an article in Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research entitled “Temporal Analysis of Tourism Research Collaboration Network” with co-authors Wei Fan of Hong Kong Polytechnic University and Rob Law of Hong Kong Polytechnic University.]

Network analysis is an effective tool for the study of relationships among individual, including the relationships among researchers. We would like to investigate the changes of importance of individual researchers in collaboration networks of tourism research over time, which may help to obtain better understanding of collaboration to promote the progress of research.

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We proposed to evaluate the importance of researchers by considering both productivity and their contribution to the connectivity of collaboration networks.  In network analysis, centrality measures can reflect the importance of nodes in a network and degree and betweenness are two commonly used centrality measures in previous studies. This study found that betweenness centrality is better than degree centrality in terms of reflecting the changes of importance of researchers.

Information about the evolution of collaboration network and the changes of each researcher can be provided withthe method proposed in this study. With further research on topic analysis of published articles, the proposed method may help to explore trends in tourism and hospitality research. Moreover, this work provides an alternative method to utilize centrality measure in network analysis.

The abstract for the paper:

Network analysis is an effective tool for the study of collaboration relationships among researchers. Collaboration networks constructed from previous studies, and their changes over time have been studied. However, the impact of individual researchers in collaboration networks has not been investigated systematically. We introduce a new method of measuring the contribution of researchers to the connectivity of collaboration networks and evaluate the importance of researchers by considering both contribution and productivity. Betweenness centrality is found to be better than degree centrality in terms of reflecting the changes of importance of researchers. Accordingly, a method is further proposed to identify key researchers at certain periods. The performance of the identified researchers demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed method.

You can read “Temporal Analysis of Tourism Research Collaboration Network” from Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research free for the next two weeks by clicking here. Want to know all about the latest research from Journal of Hospitality & Tourism ResearchClick here to sign up for e-alerts!

*Image attributed to US Embassy (CC)

Developing a Food Involvement Scale to Study Food Tourism

4563690038_7e804749d1_z (1)In recent years, food tourism has seen a spike in popularity, but how can researchers better understand the impact of food involvement on food tourism? In the recent article, “Food Enthusiasts and Tourism: Exploring Food Involvement Dimension,” published in Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Researchauthors Richard N. S. Robinson and Donald Getz set out to establish a food involvement scale. The abstract for the article:

Involvement is a much theorized construct in the consumer behavior literature, yet extant food involvement scales have not been developed for leisure- or tourism-based contexts. Adopting a phenomenological approach, this article reports a study with two primary aims: to develop a customized food involvement scale and to administer the instrument to a sample of self-declared “food enthusiasts” with analysis focusing on identifying the underlying constructs of food involvement. An exploratory factor analysis finds four dimensions of food involvement: Food-Related Identity, Food Quality, Social Bonding, and Food Current Issue CoverConsciousness. The four dimensions are validated by discriminant analysis between the food enthusiast sample and a general population sample and logistic regression reveals that identity is the most powerful predictor of being a food enthusiast. We demonstrate the utility of the four factors by operationalizing them as variables in tests of difference vis-à-vis demographic variables and conclude the study by summarizing the theoretical and tourism destination implications. This research addresses a need for theory-driven knowledge to inform the burgeoning special interest tourism of food tourism.

You can read “Food Enthusiasts and Tourism: Exploring Food Involvement Dimension” from Journal of Hospitality of Tourism Research free for the next two weeks by clicking here. Want to know all about the latest research from Journal of Hospitality & Tourism ResearchClick here to sign up for e-alerts!

*Image attributed to Thomas Abbs (CC)

Why Would You Choose to Revisit a Dissatisfying Restaurant?

02JSR13_Covers.inddWe’re pleased to welcome Dr. Gabriele Pizzi of the University of Bologna. Dr. Pizzi recently collaborated with Gian Luca Marzocchi, Chiara Orsingher and Alessandra Zammit on their paper published in the Journal of Service Research entitled “The Temporal Construal of Customer Satisfaction.”

A dirty plate at the restaurant where we were having a research meeting at lunch inspired the intuition behind the research idea portrayed in this work. Just upon the exit, we were so dissatisfied that we promised we would never come back to that restaurant. Interestingly, when choosing a restaurant some months later during another research meeting, one of us proposed THAT restaurant. After all, the atmosphere was pleasing and the room was quiet so that we could discuss about our research plans without being bothered. We started wondering why the evaluation of the restaurant had changed over time. Someone proposed that the details of the experience were forgotten: however, all of us perfectly remembered about the dirty plate. Presumably, over time the relevance of the dirty plate had decreased in our evaluations.

We explain this phenomenon through the lenses of Construal Level Theory, which posits that that individuals generate different mental representation of events that are placed at distinct points in the near rather than the distant future. For example, organizing a party for the next month is construed at a high level of abstraction, in terms of “having fun,” and “seeing friends.” A few days before the party, however, the same event is construed at a low level of abstraction, such as “buying food and drinks,” and “decorating the house.”

We show that construal mechanisms are activated also to reconstruct and evaluate past experiences. Basing on the results of two experiments and a field study, we find that the importance of the attributes driving satisfaction shifts over time, with concrete attributes of the experience ranking higher than abstract attributes in the evaluation of near-past experiences. The opposite happens for the evaluation of distant-past experiences. In addition, we show that overall satisfaction judgments shift over time as a function of the different performances of abstract and concrete attributes. Customers are more satisfied with a service experience featuring concrete positive and abstract negative attributes when they evaluate it in the near past. Conversely, they are more satisfied with a service experience featuring abstract positive and concrete negative attributes when they evaluate the experience in the distant past.

Our findings have several important implications for designing satisfaction surveys more effectively. We advise companies to design surveys that measure satisfaction repeatedly to obtain the whole spectrum of evaluations. Focusing on the so-called online evaluations (i.e., evaluation collected immediately after the service experience is over) may be misleading: Online satisfaction surveys might overemphasize (underemphasize) the impact of low-level negative (high-level positive) attributes on the overall satisfaction judgment. Additionally, the content and the wording of satisfaction surveys are relevant: if the content of the questionnaire and the construal level of the past experience are not correctly paired, it may be difficult to find an exhaustive explanation for the determinants of overall customer satisfaction/dissatisfaction.

In summary, our research shows that when consumers evaluate a service experience that has happened in the near-past (e.g., two days earlier) they rely on concrete service attributes, but they rely on abstract attributes when they evaluate the same experience in the distant-past (e.g., two months earlier). This is why a concrete attribute such as a dirty plate might have been discarded from our distant past satisfaction judgments about the restaurant. Eventually, we came back to that restaurant and we received an unexpected gift at the end of our lunch. But that’s another research project.

You can read “The Temporal Construal of Customer Satisfaction” from Journal of Service Research by clicking here. Want to have all the latest news and research from Journal of Service Research sent directly to your inbox? Click here to sign up for e-alerts.


pizziGabriele Pizzi is an Assistant Professor of marketing at the University of Bologna. His research interests include customer satisfaction measurement, intertemporal choices, and inventory management. His work has appeared in the Journal of Retailing, Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, and the Journal of Economic Psychology.

gianGian Luca Marzocchi is a Professor of marketing and consumer behavior at the University of Bologna. His research specialties include customer satisfaction modeling, waiting perception in service settings, intertemporal choice, and the interplay between brand loyalty and community identification in brand communities. His refereed works have appeared in Journal of Applied Psychology, Journal of Economic Psychology, Psychology and Marketing, International Journal of Service Industry Management, Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, among others.

chiaraChiara Orsingher is an Associate Professor of marketing at the University of Bologna. Her research interests include service recovery and complaint handling, meta-analysis, and referral reward programs. Her work has appeared in the Journal of Academy of Marketing Science, Journal of Service Research, Psychology & Marketing and the International Journal of Service Industry Management.

zammitAlessandra Zammit is an Assistant Professor of marketing at the University of Bologna. Her research interests include context effects, social influence, self-customization decisions and identity based consumption. Her work has appeared in the Journal of Consumer Research and in the Service Industries Journal.

Don’t Miss the 2015 ICHRIE Summer Conference!

2015_ICHRIE_Conf_logoToday is the final day of the 2015 Annual International Council on Hotel, Restaurant, and Institutional Education (ICHRIE) Summer Conference in Orlando, Florida! The Annual Conference promises to be filled with new and innovative educational research, exciting displays at the ICHRIE Marketplace and numerous opportunities to take advantage of networking with members and guests.

International CHRIE continues to be the leader in providing a forum for and facilitating the exchange of knowledge, ideas, research, industry trends, products and services related to education, training and resource development for the hospitality, tourism and culinary arts industry. This exchange is noticeably prevalent through the energetic and thought-provoking dialogue which occurs at ICHRIE conferences and Federation meetings each year.

In honor of this conference, you can read the latest from these hospitality and tourism journals represented at ICHRIE for free for the next week!

2JHTR07_Covers.pdfThe Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research publishes original research, both conceptual and empirical, that clearly enhances the theoretical development of the hospitality and tourism field. The word contribution is key. JHTR encourages research based on a variety of methods, including both qualitative and quantitative approaches. To promote the exchange of current and innovative ideas, JHTR also includes a Research Notes and Industry Viewpoints section. Click here to read the latest issue.

cqx coverThe Cornell Hospitality Quarterly publishes theoretically rich, research articles that provide timely hospitality management implications for those involved or interested in the hospitality industry. The quarterly is a leading source for the latest research findings with strategic value addressing a broad range of topics that are relevant to hospitality, travel, and tourism. Click here to read the latest issue.

JTR_72ppiRGB_powerpointJournal of Travel Research is the premier, peer-reviewed research journal focusing on travel and tourism behavior, management and development. The first scholarly journal in North America focused exclusively on travel and tourism, JTR provides researchers, educators, and professionals with up-to-date, high quality, international and multidisciplinary research on behavioral trends and management theory for one of the most influential and dynamic industries. Click here to read the latest issue.

Book Review: The Cultivation of Taste: Chefs and the Organization of Fine Dining

Book0199651655Christel Lane : The Cultivation of Taste: Chefs and the Organization of Fine Dining. New York: Oxford University Press, 2014. 368 pp. $45.00/£30.00, hardback.

You can read the review by Michaela DeSoucey of North Carolina State University, available in the OnlineFirst section of Administrative Science Quarterly.

In today’s world, eating out is serious business. And Christel Lane’s new book, The Cultivation of Taste, is a serious—and engaging—scholarly investigation into the business of the culinary industry. Broadly, her comparative analysis of the world of fine-dining chefs and top restaurants in Britain and Germany is a study of the contemporary social organization and business of taste. It unites arguments from organizational theory, the sociology of culture, and economic sociology. Lane, a sociologist, takes the reader on a behind-the-scenes tour, spanning organizational and industry structures, the occupational careers and attitudes of elite chefs, and ASQ_v60n1_Mar2015_cover.inddthe taste-making power of gastronomic guides, namely the prestigious Michelin Guide. Her choice of Britain and Germany as case studies was a purposeful one; both are newcomers to fine dining and equally smaller than the French sector. Yet, despite lacking rich histories of haute cuisine, both have seen stratospheric public interest in home-grown fine dining—and all that neo–fine-dining entails in the 21st century—in the last few decades.

In theorizing the differences between the development of fine dining in the two countries, Lane offers both a macro-level study of institutional change within the field of European gastronomy and a meso-level investigation of organizational logics and repertoires of action among the chefs who inhabit this unique social world. This will likely be relevant for neo-institutionalists in regard to logics and inhabited institutionalism, as well as speak to organizational ecologists interested in category spanning. Lane relies primarily on Boltanski and Thevenot’s (2006) forms of “worth,” principles of evaluation that define what is appropriate, or not, in different realms of social life. Many of these conceptions of value are in conflict with one another here, such as tensions between creativity and profit. While it does not break much new theoretical ground for organization scholars, the book offers an in-depth look at how diversity in logics structures organizational entities and competing orders of worth in a hot cultural industry.

You can read the rest of the review from Administrative Science Quarterly for free by clicking here. Want to know about all the latest reviews and research from Administrative Science Quarterly? Click here to sign up for e-alerts!