The Warm Glow of Restaurant Checkout Charity: Do You Participate?

5390059375_4cb242cbbc_z.jpgIt’s often seen and experienced that retail stores, restaurants, and supermarkets ask for a donation to the cause of the season when you checkout. How often do you donate and agree to that $1-$5 on the pin pad? If you do donate, do you feel like an avid supporter of both the store you’re shopping at and the featured charity? Researchers and authors Michael Giebelhausen, Benjamin Lawrence, HaeEun Helen Chun, and Liwu Hsu go so far as to say people feel a “warm glow” when agreeing to donate on a whim.

They recently published an article in Cornell Hospitality Quarterly entitled, “The Warm Glow of Restaurant Checkout Charity,” which is currently free to read for a limited time. The abstract for this article is below:

Checkout charity is a phenomenon whereby frontline employees (or self-service technologies) solicit charitable donations from customers during the payment process. Despite its growing ubiquity, little is known about this salient aspect of the service experience. The present research examines checkout charity in the context of fast-food restaurants and finds that, when customers donate, they experience a “warm glow” that mediates a relationship between donating and store repatronage. Study 1 utilizes three scenario-based experiments to explore the phenomenon across different charities and different participant populations using both self-selection and random assignment designs. Study 2 replicates with a field study. Study 3 examines national store–level sales data from a fast-food chain and finds that checkout fund-raising, as a percentage of sales, predicts store revenue—a finding consistent with results of Studies 1 and 2. Managers often infer, quite correctly, that many consumers do not like being asked to donate. Paradoxically, our results suggest this ostensibly negative experience can increase service repatronage. For academics, these results add to a growing body of literature refuting the notion that small prosocial acts affect behavior by altering an individual’s self-concept.

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Donation box photo attributed to Zhu (CC).

 

Read Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies November Issue!

JLOS_72ppiRGB_powerpointThe November 2015 issue of Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies is now available to read for free for the next 30 days! In addition to regular issue articles, this edition includes a section with Midwest Academy of Management Special Issue Articles. Articles include interviews with Fred Luthans and Andrew H. Van de Ven as well as papers by Charles C. Snow, Mark J. Martinko, and recent SAGE book author Terri A. Scandura.

The lead article entitled “Alpha and Omega: When Bullies Run in Packs” was authored by Patricia A. Meglich of University of Nebraska at Omaha and Andra Gumbus of Sacred Heart University. You can read the abstract here:

While workplace bullying often involves multiple perpetrators, limited research has investigated this important aspect of the phenomenon. In the present study, we explored the perceived severity and comparison of actual behaviors experienced when different perpetrators attack the target. Survey results showed that bullying by one’s supervisor is perceived to be more severe than bullying by a group of coworkers and that coworkers are more likely to bully when the supervisor bullies. When working as a group, bullies focus their attack on the target’s personal life rather than on his or her work life. Implications for research and practice are provided.

Click here to access the Table of Contents of the November Issue of Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies. Want to know about all the latest from Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies? Click here to sign up for e-alerts!

Are Authentic Leadership and Fairness Connected?

JLOS_72ppiRGB_powerpoint[We’re pleased to welcome Christa Kiersch of University of Wisconsin–La Crosse. Dr. Kiersch recently collaborated with Zinta S. Byrne of Colorado State University on their article from Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies entitled “Is Being Authentic Being Fair? Multilevel Examination of Authentic Leadership, Justice, and Employee Outcomes.”]

Like many interested in leadership and organizational science, I often ask myself (and my perhaps less interested undergraduate students) what it means to be a great leader or to have great leadership. This seems to be a guiding question of much of the research in organizational leadership, and with good cause. If we can better understand what great leadership is, then we may be able to get more of it through improved selection assessments or training and development programs. To go one step further, if we can better understand why certain leadership skills or behaviors or other characteristics are effective, we can offer more precisely targeted recommendations for leaders hoping to make a positive impact (and be more specific regarding what the positive impact will be). This captures the underlying goal of this study, to inform actionable strategies for leaders to positively influence the people and goals of their organization or team.

In our research, we found that being an authentic leader (one based on honesty, self-awareness and transparency) often means being a fair leader, and that one way in which authentic leadership has a positive impact on team members and team outcomes is via perceptions of fair treatment among the team. While I had a hunch that this core relationship between authentic leadership and fairness would be supported in the study, I was intrigued by the complexities of our multi-level findings. I find it interesting that authentic leadership impacts individual perceptions and shared group perceptions (i.e., team climate) a bit differently, and that this impact also appears different depending on the outcome of interest (e.g., turnover intentions vs. employee well-being). I sincerely look forward to continued dialogue regarding these findings and more generally regarding the interesting ways in which leadership impacts (and is impacted by) individuals and groups.

You can read “Is Being Authentic Being Fair? Multilevel Examination of Authentic Leadership, Justice, and Employee Outcomes” from Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies for free by clicking here. Want to know about all the latest research from Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies? Click here to sign up for e-alerts!


ChristaChrista E. Kiersch is an assistant professor of Management at the University of Wisconsin – La Crosse. Her research interests include leadership, organizational justice, and social responsibility in the workplace.

Zinta S. Byrne is a professor of Industrial and Organizational Psychology at Colorado State University. Her current research interests focus on employee engagement, organizational justice, and computer-mediated exchanges.

Using Social Marketing in China to Reduce the Spread of Cysticerosis

tap-1564536[We’re pleased to welcome Mary Dickey of the University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center. Dr. Dickey recently published “Program Evaluation of a Sanitation Marketing Campaign Among the Bai in China: A Strategy for Cysticercosis Reduction” with Robert John, Helene Carabin, and Xiao-Nong Zhou in Social Marketing Quarterly.]

I saw first-hand the problems with sanitation through my involvement in community development work in rural China. Although emphasis is often placed on new technology in sanitation, I observed that promoting behavioral change was the real challenge. Poor sanitation causes many diseases and one that was of special interest to me was cysticercosis. Cysticercosis is a leading cause of epilepsy among the Bai minority group in Yunnan, China.

I found that many among the Bai already understood the relationship between sanitation and disease but F1.mediumthat understanding did not seem to affect toilet construction and use. Since health education alone did not seem to be an answer, we researched the use of sanitation marketing among the Bai. This research reveals how formative data was collected to help researchers understand not only the sanitation situation but also the thoughts and opinions of the Bai related to toilet use. This data was used to design a social marketing campaign to promote toilets with the specific goal of reducing cysticercosis. The results of the campaign in two intervention villages are compared with the results of a more conventional government promotion in two comparison villages. This is the first report of the use of social marketing of toilets in China. Although more research is needed, this program evaluation indicates that sanitation marketing in rural China is an appropriate approach to increase sanitation coverage.

You can read “Program Evaluation of a Sanitation Marketing Campaign Among the Bai in China: A Strategy for Cysticercosis Reduction” from Social Marketing Quarterly for free by clicking here. Don’t forget to sign up for e-alerts and get all the latest news and research from Social Marketing Quarterly sent directly to your inbox!

Gerald Zaltman on New Marketing Science for Hospitality Practitioners

cqx coverGerald Zaltman, Joseph C. Wilson Professor Emeritus at Harvard Business School and creator of  the first patented market research tool in the United States titled the Zaltman Metaphor Elicitation Technique, recently collaborated with Jerry Olson and James Forr of Olson Zaltman Associates on their article “Toward a New Marketing Science for Hospitality Managers” from Cornell Hospitality Quarterly.

The abstract:

A New Marketing Science (NMS) is proposed that can dramatically improve a firm’s marketplace performance. The NMS challenges managers to dare to think and act differently. It generates deep insights into the thoughts and actions of both customers and managers and how the two mind-sets interact. As several examples illustrate, it departs from the “old” marketing science by its emphasis on imagination, knowing how and why a practice works, understanding the total customer experience, and focus on effectiveness over efficiency. The NMS is grounded in principles from the behavioral sciences and humanities such as the importance of the unconscious mind, the way mental frames serve as interpretative lenses, the centrality of emotions, the reconstructive nature of memory, and the importance of metaphor for learning about and influencing choices.

You can read “Toward a New Marketing Science for Hospitality Managers” from Cornell Hospitality Quarterly for free by clicking here. Want to know when all the latest research like this is available from Cornell Hospitality Quarterly? Click here to sign up for e-alerts!

Thomas A. Wright on Incorporating Character in Business Education

cheating-1562136According to The Atlantic, between 2001 and 2010 the annual rate of scholarly article retractions increased by a factor of 11. A recent study published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences took a closer look and found that out of the 2,047 retracted papers reviewed, 67.4% were the direct result of academic misconduct rather than genuine error. With scholarly transgressions on the rise, it comes as no surprise that many universities are taking action to stop collegiate dishonesty at the student level through implementation of strict plagiarism policing. In his Distinguished Scholar Invited Essay entitled “Reflections on the Role of Character in Business Education and Student Leadership Development” from Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies, Thomas A. Wright of Fordham University discusses the importance of character and character leadership development in business education as a way of not only reducing academic misconduct misconduct but developing scholars’ search for life’s meaning.

From the introduction:

The role of character is critical in the development of our own, as well as our students’, search for life’s meaning (Frankl, 1984). JLOS_72ppiRGB_powerpointFocusing on the role of character, in both our teaching and research, four objectives are undertaken designed to highlight the importance of character and character leadership development in business education. First, a discussion of why character is relevant to business education assessment is provided though the 3-H (“head,” “heart,” and “hands”) approach to student learning (Hill & Stewart, 1999; Stuebs, 2011). While many academics traditionally focus on the “head” approach, we need to also focus on how students affectively (“heart”) and behaviorally (“hands”) learn about character. Second, considered within the context of what is character, an overview of how I have assessed character is presented emphasizing my “top-5” profiles in character approach to both personal and professional leadership development (Wright & Quick, 2011). Third, building on Bandura’s (1977) social learning model, I propose that a lack of positive role models constitutes one significant reason why we are today faced with such moral challenge in business education. My reflection closes with suggestions for the continued role of character education and research in both our classroom and beyond. A brief overview is provided next of why character is relevant to business education assessment.

You can read “Reflections on the Role of Character in Business Education and Student Leadership Development” from Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies for free by clicking here. Want to know about all the latest research like this from Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies? Click here to sign up for e-alerts!

Enhancing Student PsyCap in an Online Learning Environment

computer-room-314632-m[We’re pleased to welcome Joshua J. Daspit of Mississippi State University. Dr. Daspit recently published an article in Journal of Management Education with T. C. Mims of Texas Woman’s University and Staci M. Zavattaro of Mississippi State University entitled “The Role of Positive Psychological States in Online Learning: Integrating Psychological Capital Into the Community of Inquiry Framework.”]

The abstract:

  • What inspired you to be interested in this topic?

My colleagues and I found this topic interesting because in addition to conducting research, a large portion of our jobs is dedicated to working with students. Each of us uses online components within our classes or teaches courses that are fully online – as many instructors do today – and the idea started from a simple desire to understand how we can enhance student learning within an online environment.

  • Were there findings that were surprising to you?

To understand how learning occurs within the context of an online environment, we used the Community of Inquiry (CoI) framework to conceptualize how learning occurs. The CoI suggests three presences exist within an online learning environment. First, there is a teaching presence that consists of course development and facilitation by the instructor. Second, a social presence exists when individuals interact with peers within the online context. Last, the CoI suggests that the other two factors influence an individual-level cognitive presence. In other words, the teaching and social presences influence student learning.

In this study, we extend the CoI framework to account for an additional presence. Specifically, we suggest that an additional, individual-level factor drives the student’s learning, and that factor is the individual student’s psychological capital (or PsyCap). PsyCap cJME_72ppiRGB_powerpointonsists of the student’s self-efficacy, hope, optimism, and resilience. Without these, we suggest, the student is likely to have difficulty learning.

After testing the relationships among PsyCap and the components of the CoI framework, we find that instructors are able to positively influence the student’s PsyCap via the teaching presence. Additionally, the student’s PsyCap has a positive influence on the social presence within the online environment, and most notably, PsyCap positively influences the student’s learning (i.e., cognitive presence).

  • How do you see this study influencing future research and/or practice?

In the article, we offer suggestions for specific ways that instructors of online courses can enhance the student’s PsyCap and thereby enhance the student’s learning. For example, instructors may utilize an online PsyCap training session early in the semester as such trainings are shown to positively enhance the PsyCap of individuals.

We look forward to suggestions from other instructors who have found innovative ways to enhance student PsyCap and learning in online courses.

You can read “The Role of Positive Psychological States in Online Learning: Integrating Psychological Capital Into the Community of Inquiry Framework” from Journal of Management Education by clicking here. Want to know about all the latest research from Journal of Management Education? Click here to sign up for e-alerts!


Josh DaspitJoshua J. Daspit, Ph.D., is an Assistant Professor of Management at Mississippi State University. His research interests include examining firm capabilities and innovation with a primary focus on absorptive capacity and family business. His work has appeared in Entrepreneurship Theory & Practice, Academy of Management Learning & Education, Journal of Managerial Issues, and other outlets. Prior to joining academia, he worked as a senior consultant for an international consulting firm and served as Director of Community Affairs for a member of Congress. (Follow him on Twitter: @JoshDaspit.)

TC MimsTina C. Mims, Ph.D., is currently serving as a Visiting Lecturer at Texas Woman’s University. Dr. Mims is a recently vetted PhD in Marketing after practicing marketing as VP & Director roles at Fortune 1000 firms. She is passionate regarding the preparation of both graduate and undergraduate students to have a competency based learning experience transferable to their chosen careers.

Staci ZavattaroStaci M. Zavattaro, Ph.D., is an associate professor of public administration at the University of Central Florida. Her main research interests include place branding and marketing, as well as social media use within the public sector. Her books include Cities for Sale (SUNY Press), Place Branding Through Phases of the Image (Palgrave Macmillan), and Social Media in Government: Theory and Practice (CRC Press). She serves as managing editor of Administrative Theory & Praxis and belongs at the Public Administration Theory Network, the Public Management Research Association, and the American Society for Public Administration.