Understanding the Differential Effects of Anxiety and Anger

depression-2912404_1280[We’re pleased to welcome authors, Laurie J. Barclay of Wilfrid Laurier University, and Tina Kiefer of the University of Warwick. They recently published an article in the Journal of Management entitled “In the Aftermath of Unfair Events: Understanding the Differential Effects of Anxiety and Anger,” which is currently free to read for a limited time. Below, the motivation for their research:]

JOM_42_5_Covers.inddWhat motivated you to pursue this research?
We were interested in how employees experience unfair events on a day-to-day basis and how they “live through” and actively navigate these experiences. We wanted to move away from the dominant perspective in the literature that examines how unfairness impacts employees through the “eyes” and interests of managers and organizations. Instead, we wanted to ground our investigation in employees’ experiences to understand how employees process and respond to these events and how this impacts their relationship with the organization.

Within the fairness literature, it is often assumed that negative emotions are detrimental. However, negative emotions can be functional for employees and hence organizations. One of our study’s most compelling findings is that employees who experience anxiety in reaction to the unfair event are motivated to engage in problem prevention behaviors, which are aimed at “fixing” the situation. Interestingly, employees who engage in these behaviors experienced a “rebound” in their fairness perceptions, such that the drop in perceived fairness due to the unfair event was corrected. By contrast, anger was functional by showing that the unfairness would not be tolerated but did not have the same positive impact on subsequent fairness perceptions. This raises important questions about how employees’ behaviors impact the aftermath of the unfair event and the importance of understanding how employees are experiencing these events to effectively manage these situations.

What advice would you give to new scholars and incoming researchers in this particular field of study?
After decades of research, the fairness literature has become a mature and well-established domain of inquiry, with thousands of studies and dozens of theories. Although this wealth of empirical evidence and theoretical diversity has provided much richness, incoming researchers and doctoral students can find it a bit intimidating to dive into. Further, some scholars have also questioned whether the maturity of this literature will lead to stagnation. However, there are many opportunities to make significant, novel, and important discoveries in this domain by taking different and novel perspectives.

One way to continue to stimulate this literature is to identify and question its underlying assumptions. For example, in our research, we grounded our investigation in the experiences of employees which challenges the dominant perspective in the field. This approach created a number of insights regarding how employees actively navigate unfair events, including how employees can impact their own fairness perceptions through their emotional and behavioral responses as well as the functional nature of negative emotions.

We would encourage new scholars and incoming researchers to challenge assumptions in the literature and also consider how applying theories from other domains and perspectives to fairness can enhance our insights. Doing so will create exciting new opportunities to expand our understanding and ability to manage this important phenomenon. Given the pervasiveness and impact of unfairness, it is critical to provide employees and organizations with evidence-based practices that can help prevent these experiences, where possible, and effectively navigate unfairness when it does occur.

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Stress photo attributed to whoismargot. (CC)

 

An interview with a COPE Co-Chair on Publication Ethics

[The following post is re-blogged from SAGE Connection. Click here to view the original article.]

Connecting with the Community interview with Geraldine Pearson

Geraldine intv

By Mimi Nguyen, Marketing Manager, SAGE Publishing

Geraldine Pearson is an associate professor at the University of Connecticut School of Medicine and the editor of the Journal of the American Psychiatric Nurses Association (JAPNA) (which we are proud to publish) and volunteers as the Co-Chair of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE). Established in 1997, COPE provides advice to editors and publishers on all aspects of publication ethics, including issues of research and publication misconduct. It also provides a forum for its members—about 10,000 worldwide—to discuss individual cases.

We recently interviewed Geraldine to learn more about her experience working with COPE and supporting ethical scientific publication. Read on for the full interview.

Q: How important is the existence of something like COPE? What would you expect to be the publication ecosystem without it?

First, thanks so much for inviting me to participate in this!  Your first question is a very interesting one.  I’m obviously very immersed in COPE and publication ethics issues in general and right now, particularly, it’s hard to imagine NOT having COPE around to provide guidance, education, and support to anyone involved in publishing, whether editors or authors.  I became involved with COPE several years ago after a fairly serious publication ethics violation involving the nursing journal that I previously edited.  This violation involved three journals, three editors, and one author, and when I queried COPE, the advice and guidance was enormously supportive and helpful.  It offered practical steps towards resolution of the issue.

Now, as I think about the publishing landscape, the changes in the past decade have been enormous with the advent of open access, the proliferation of journals globally, and the increasing questions about many topics including what constitutes authorship, models of peer review, the process of retractions, and identifying research misconduct.  COPE tries to provide the guidance and information that editors and authors need as they navigate this increasingly complex arena.  I strongly believe that COPE’s existence is important.  If the day comes when there are no publication ethics dilemmas, COPE’s work will be done.  I don’t see that happening in the near future.

Q: What’s the “State of the Nation,” so to speak in publication ethics? What are recent successes and failures? Are we going in the right direction?

I think my colleagues at COPE would agree with me that the state of publication ethics is somewhat of a moving target.  It is in the process of change on one side and yet, on the other side, the bedrock values of maintaining integrity and ethics in the process of publishing remain clear and steady.  In 2015, Ginny Barbour, the previous chair of COPE stated that “we need a culture of responsibility for the integrity of the literature…it’s not just the job of editors.”  This implies the need to continually educate and guide researchers and authors about that culture, recognizing that the shifting world of publishing models is going to influence this.  All of COPE’s activities are aimed at fulfilling that mission of supporting all those who aim to promote integrity in research and its publication.  In COPE it means member access to a variety of guidelines, flowsheets, a database of past cases, an eLearning course of 10 modules on ethical issues and many other resources.  There are also many free resources for non-members of COPE and these can be accessed at publicationethics.org.

The successes of COPE include an expanded Council and Trustee Board that is completely international, a blend of editors and publishers who work together as volunteers around publication ethics.  The group is thriving as evidenced by a global influence and increasing requests for information and assistance around publication ethics.

The failures probably involve the egregious violations of research integrity in multiple journals that have been so heavily publicized in recent years.  We often discuss the range of errors that authors and researchers make from inadvertent errors made from lack of knowledge to the extreme of overtly malicious ethics violations involving many publications.  Regardless, if there is a need for guidance or education around these issues involving publication ethics, there is a role for COPE and I think we are definitely going in the right direction.  While it is a challenging time with a whirlwind of changes in publishing models, it is also very exciting to be part of the dynamic and intelligent group of diverse individuals that comprise COPE.

Q: In your tenure as a chair of COPE, have you seen issues related to publishing ethics change? How so?

I have only been the Co-Chair of COPE since early June so my perceptions are based more on my role as Co-Vice Chair over the past two years.  I’ve shared that distinction with Chris Graf, a Wiley Publisher, and we are now early in our term as Co-Chairs.

I think that one of the most influential issues involves the explosion of social media and the multiple platforms for individuals and groups to express their opinions in a fairly uncensored arena.  At the same time, many groups are paying a lot of attention to publication ethics realizing that it is a key hallmark of research integrity.

Q: Based on what you have witnessed, do ethical concerns differ by discipline?

Personally, I don’t think that basic ethical premises around publication ethics should differ much by discipline.  Certainly particular nuances around authorship, peer review, and publishing models will exist according to discipline and culture.  But in the end the core principles, as detailed by COPE’s Principles of Transparency and Best Practice in Scholarly Publishing, transcend these cultural and discipline-specific differences.  COPE is in the process of exploring these concepts as they apply more specifically to humanities versus biomedical journals, but I still think there is a commonality across disciplines.

Q: What advice would you give to editors wanting to uphold the highest standards of publishing ethics? What about article authors?

I would urge editors to ascertain if their publishing company is a member of COPE and if not a member, consider advocating that they join.  When publishers or individuals become members of COPE they agree to adhere to a standard of publication ethics.  They then receive a COPE logo that can be freely displayed on journals.  SAGE Publishing and most of the other larger publishing houses are all members.

Editors can do much to uphold publication ethics standards.  For example, they can make sure their journal-specific submission and review processes and criteria for publication are clearly written and transparent to any author considering a submission.  Any publication fees need to be clearly stated.  An appeal process to a manuscript rejection should be delineated.  The key is transparency of the process.

Also, utilizing the best editorial board members and peer reviewers in making editorial decisions will help ensure that publishing ethics standards are upheld.  Perhaps the most important behavior involves an editor with concerns utilizing the resources of the publisher while speaking with colleagues.  The thorniness of publication ethics dilemmas should not be handled alone and there are numerous resources freely available to editors.  Ask the questions, watch the process, and value transparency.

Q: As the editor of the Journal of the American Psychiatric Nurses Association, what best practices can you share from personal experience?

I am honored to be the editor of this journal and to have the opportunity to work closely with JAPNA and with all the authors who are sharing their manuscripts for publication and valuing the journal as a resource for psychiatric nurses.  I try and live by the tenets I cited in the last question.  I also try to stay humble, realizing that there are publication ethics issues that I probably can’t even imagine out there.  The key best practice is being honest in management and in utilizing every available resource in trying to resolve these issues.  I also freely note that no one is perfect and when I make a mistake I want to own it and correct it in the most ethical manner possible.  Personally, I am continually learning about the vast world of editing a journal and it is challenging and fascinating!  I really appreciate having SAGE as the publisher of JAPNA.

Interested in more informative interviews with industry experts? Check out our Connecting with the Community series and keep up to date with our latest content by following us on Twitter and by liking our Facebook page.

Pedagogical Innovation and Paradigm Shift in the Introduction to Management Curriculum

[We’re pleased to welcome authors Elizabeth Christopher of Macquarie University, Joe Roberts of Webster University, and Oliver Laasch of the University of Nottingham, China. They recently published a paper in the Journal of Management Education entitled, “Pedagogical Innovation and Paradigm Shift in the Introduction to Management Curriculum,” which is free to read for a limited time. Below, Christopher and Roberts reflect on the motivation for pursuing this research:]

JME_72ppiRGB_powerpointWhat motivated you to pursue this research?

E- Identifying a need for improved introduction to management education, emerging from a complex global business environment of socio- economic challenges for managers.

J- Identifying innovative pedagogical approaches to teaching Intro to Management concepts across campus as interdisciplinary courses.

Were there any specific external events—political, social, or economic—that influenced your decision to pursue this research?

E- The 20th century was characterized by a resurgence of 19th-century concepts of management associated with laissez-faire economic liberalism that persists to this day. Managerialism is the organizational form of neo-liberalism that implicitly endorses the concept of educating managers to be market-led. Education along these lines is defined in terms of human capital acquisition, skilled for the economy.

If the principles of neoliberal, market led, introduction to management education are not examined, educators run the risk of overlooking contemporary demands for managerial social ethics and responsibility for the environment. This Special Issue is an attempt to respond to this challenge on behalf of university faculties and students and on behalf of curriculum designs.

In what ways is your research innovative, and how do you think it will impact the field?

E- It is innovative in its recognition that contemporary western management thought, all too often, is based on outdated assumptions of what ‘good’ management should be, but that have become profoundly inadequate to address pressing challenges of managerial sustainability, responsibility and ethics.  The research reveals the extent of the need for new approaches to introduction to management courses. The JME is a widely read and highly regarded journal, therefore the research findings should have an impact on the field.

J- As the managerial function has become more entrepreneurial in nature the question of ethics has become extremely important and should be integrated with pedagogical approaches to teaching Intro to Management concepts.

 

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Is Business Ethics Too Important to be Left in the Hands of Business: A Democratic Alternative?

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[We’re pleased to welcome author Carl Rhodes of the University of Technology, Sydney. Rhodes recently published an article in Organization Studies entitled “Democratic Business Ethics: Volkswagen’s Emissions Scandal and the Disruption of Corporate Sovereignty,” which is currently free to read for a limited time. Below, Rhodes reflects on the inspiration for conducting this research:]

Cover image for latest issue of Organization Studies

When people think of business ethics they normally imagine what businesses can or should do to be judged as ethical.  Whether the focus is on breaches of ethical norms by corporations, or models for the achievement of ethical business, the common approach is that it is organizations themselves who are the ethical agents.

This assumption is limited because it fails to account for how corporate responsibility does not necessarily arrive through the voluntary actions of corporations themselves. In response, in my own research I have been exploring a more democratic and socially focussed understanding of how business ethics is practiced.  The results were recently published in my article in Organization Studies called ‘Democratic Business Ethics: Volkswagen’s Emissions Scandal and the Disruption of Corporate Sovereignty’

The 2015 Volkswagen emission scandal illustrates what I call democratic business ethics; an ethics where citizens and the institutions of civil society hold corporations to account for their actions, and in so doing disrupt the self-interested abuse of corporate power.  At the time the scandal broke, Volkswagen was the world’s largest auto manufacturer, and a company widely heralded for its environmentalism and its corporate social responsibly activities.  Despite impeccable ethical credentials, the scandal revealed a corporation whose success had been boosted by sophisticated cheating on fuel emission tests.

The paper shows how Volkswagen was brought to justice for its actions not because of its own proclaimed ethics or moral hubris, but because of the interaction of individuals and institutions from outside of business, in this case NGOs, scientists, law makers, government agencies, the media, and the general public.  This was a demonstration how business ethics manifested in the interruption of a flagrant case of corporate fraud, deceit and criminality.

The paper develops the idea of democratic business ethics by focussing on how civil society in particular can and should ensure that corporations are made morally responsible for what they do. This is an ethics made practical through forms of dissent and contestation that redirect power away from centres of organized wealth and capital, returning it to its democratically rightful place with the people.

The conclusion is that business ethics is far too important to be left in the hands of business, and needs to be exercised in the democratic sphere so that corporations are serving society rather than the other way around.

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Does Public Service Motivation Always Lead to Organizational Commitment?

[We’re pleased to welcome author Wisanupong Potipiroon of Prince of Songkla University. Potipiroon recently published a paper in Public Personnel Management entitled, “Does Public Service Motivation Always Lead to Organizational Commitment? Examining the Moderating Roles of Intrinsic Motivation and Ethical Leadership,” which is free to read for a limited time. Below, Potipiroon reflects on the motivation for pursuing this research:]

PPM_C1 template_rev.inddIt is widely accepted that individuals with high public service motivation (PSM) are more likely to join, feel emotionally attached to and remain in public service organizations. Although we concur with this prevailing notion, our observations and anecdotes from street-level bureaucrats indicate that this is not always the case. Although it is true that public organizations can provide considerable opportunities to employees to do good for others and to be useful to society, we know from experience that service-minded employees often end up working in jobs that do not allow them to put their motivation to use effectively. Indeed, not all jobs are created equal: Some can be less interesting or challenging than others. This may form part of the reasons why many talented workers may decide to leave public service in the first place.

Well, this is precisely what we found in our data which were drawn from a large public organization in Thailand. We found that the relationship between PSM and organizational commitment was dependent upon intrinsic motivation—the extent to which one finds enjoyment in the work even without rewards. When task enjoyment was high, we found that the effect of PSM on organizational commitment was positive. When task enjoyment was lacking, however, the effect of PSM became significantly negative. This indicates that low levels of intrinsic motivation could undermine the achievement of the opportunities inherent in meaningful public services.

Interestingly, we also learned that highly motivated individuals put a great deal of importance on the extent to which their leaders are ethical. In particular, the highest level of organizational commitment was observed when there were high levels of motivation and ethical leadership simultaneously. This suggests that ethical leaders play an instrumental role in fulfilling employees’ needs to act on their motivation. In the public sector, ethical leaders are those who place great emphasis on making an outward, societal impact and showing concern for the common good while also providing a supportive work context that allow employees’ motivation to flourish.

Our study findings underscore the fact that PSM may not offer infinite benefits in every type of settings because PSM effects will likely depend on the whole range of contextual factors including job characteristics and leadership styles. Indeed, public managers should be aware that highly motivated workers could develop a particularly unfavorable view of their organizations if their prosocial needs go unmet.

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Can stories and case studies be used as tools for management inquiry?

[We’re pleased to welcome author Yiannis Gabriel of the University of  Bath, UK. Gabriel recently published an article in the Journal of Management Inquiry entitled “Case Studies as Narratives: Reflections Prompted by the Case of Victor, the Wild Child of Aveyron,” which is currently free to read for a limited time. Below, Gabriel reflects on the inspiration for conducting this research:]

JMI_72ppiRGB_powerpoint.jpgWhat motivated you to pursue this research? The accidental discovery of a book on Victor, the wolf-child found in the French region of Aveyron in 1798, prompted me to revisit the question of what makes us human, what constitutes a meaningful and fascinating case study and how case studies can be used as part of teaching and research agendas. This essay examines what attracts scientific interest to particular case study, whether that of a single unusual individual like Victor, a particular organization or a particular event, like the VW emissions scandal or the Brexit referendum, and discusses some of the strengths and limitations of the cases we use as researchers and also as teachers. I reflect on the similarities and differences between case studies and stories, arguing that they are governed by different rules of narration and different narrative contracts between authors and audiences. Both case studies and stories are capable of yielding considerable insights within the framework of a narrative methodology; in the hands of skilled instructors, they can be powerful instruments for disseminating knowledge.

The essay examines how an aberrant of atypical case, like that case of Victor, can lead us to generalizations about the typical and asks what exactly constitutes a case? It probes the etymology of the word case that indicates a singularity, an individual occurrence, an event or a phenomenon. But a case can also be a container, a box, a briefcase, a suitcase. Like a briefcase, a case-study contains material that may or may not have value. Discovering such a case immediately announces a mystery – what does it contain, who does it belong to, what does it reveal? The value of a case study, like the value of the contents of a briefcase, rely on the ability of a subject to recognize them. An innocent eye may be mistaken in discarding a case as junk when in fact its content is priceless material and may be exploited for historical or other research or indeed for financial or business gain. Recognizing the value of a case requires a particular skill which not all researchers possess – many will miss the deeper significance or value of a particular case until somebody proves capable of unearthing it. Recognizing the value of a case is akin to recognize the potential uses of any empirical material including statistical materials, historical documents or even random observations.

What has been the most challenging aspect of conducting your research? Were there any surprising findings? The most challenging part was the realization that the obscure case of Victor continues to be alive today. The case has not ended and there are meaningful questions whether Victor was indeed abandoned at birth by his parents (like other legendary feral children), or whether he was abandoned much later in life on account of some congenital condition, whether he was a noble savage or indeed a child-martyr. This led me to argue that case studies do not have clear-cut beginnings and ends and can be reopened whenever a new interpretation or new clues emerge, much like police or psychiatric cases.

In what ways is your research innovative, and how do you think it will impact the field? Many scholars are turning to qualitative research methods in the social sciences, using cases studies as core elements of their research. While there are a few standard reference points for the use of case studies (including vignettes, illustrations etc.) I believe that there is a dearth of critical reflection on the meaning of a case, its relevance and lessons. For example, the choice of particular cases may be dictated by a researcher’s esoteric interests or by a political agenda. To what extent can such cases be used as the basis for theoretical generalizations? Often a case is treated as a story. But in telling a story, a narrator can alter significant details, omit, exaggerate or improvise for effect. Are the same narrative distortions acceptable in the researcher who uses a case? What constitutes an ‘irrelevant’ detail and what detail offers crucial keys to a case’s deeper significance and meaning?

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Getting to Know Your Students and an Educational Ethic of Care

[We’re pleased to welcome author Thomas F. Hawk of Frostburg State University. Hawk recently published an article in the Journal of Management Education entitled, “Getting to Know Your Students and an Educational Ethic of Care,” that is currently free to read for a limited time. Below, Hawk shares background and motivation for pursuing this research:]

A sabbatical in 1996 that focused on critical thinking led me to discover the Philosophy of Education Society and the idea of an ethic of care. The more I explored the ethic of care literature, the more it resonated with me and gave me a vocabulary and a philosophical frame for describing and discussing my fundamental processes of facilitating the deep learning of my students. That journey of exploration continues to the present even though I retired from the university in 2009.

In 2003, a student who appeared to be struggling in my MBA capstone strategy course sent me an email asking me not to “give up on her” as she had some learning challenges that held her back from actively contributing to the case discussions. But she also complimented me on the caring and skillful ways in which I focused on my students’ learning development, provided extensive developmental feedback, and continually tried to get my students involved in the discussions. That email triggered a set of questions in my mind that led to the 2008 JME article, “Please Don’t Give Up on Me: When Faculty Fail to Care.” As I understand it, that was the first full length article in JME to address an ethic of care.JME_72ppiRGB_powerpoint.jpg

As my journey into an ethic of care continued, I did research on the extent to which business ethics textbooks and journals addressed the issue of an ethic of care as an alternative ethical framework to the traditional ethical frameworks of virtue, deontological, utilitarian, and justice ethics. That research revealed an almost total absence of a consideration of an ethic care in business ethics textbooks and only a few articles on an ethic of care in the primary business ethics journals. I also became aware of the significant differences in the ontological/metaphysical assumptions made by the rationalistic and abstract universalistic individualism of traditional ethical frameworks and the relational, concrete, uniqueness of each situation that characterizes an ethic of care and its central focus on the well-being of the parties to the relationship and the relationship itself.

Chory & Offstein’s 2017 JME article (41-1), “Your Professor Will Know You as a Person: Evaluating and Rethinking the Relational Boundaries between Faculty and Students,” prompted me to write, “Getting to Know Your Students and an Educational Ethic of Care.” That article reflects my current exploration of the congruence among an ethic of care, Alfred North Whitehead’s process philosophy and process ethics, and a process perspective on teaching and learning (see Whitehead, 1929, and Oliver & Gersham, 1989, cited in the article). I now see an ethic of care as a way of being in the world, not just as an alternative ethical framework. But in the educational domain, the most important scholarly work I have read over the last year is: Alhadeff-Jones, M. (2017). Time and the Rhythms of Emancipatory Education: Rethinking the Temporal Complexity of Self and Society. New York: Routledge.
Enjoy the reading.

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