Introduction to Special Issue: Learning & Education

[We’re pleased to welcome Laura Galloway of Heriot-Watt University and David Higgins of the University of Liverpool. They recently guest edited a special issue in Industry and Higher Education entitled “Learning and education: Exploring entrepreneurial actions and practice.” From Galloway and Higgins:]

ihea_31_2.cover.pngFollowing the Institute for Small Business and Entrepreneurship Conference in Glasgow in Autumn 2015, we were delighted to develop a special issue of Industry and Higher Education on ‘Learning and education: Exploring entrepreneurial actions and practice’ – the 5th special issue we have done so far. Included are seven papers, collated to comprise a robust contribution to the field.
Several of the papers are on the broad topic of entrepreneurship education in universities, including:

  • Lost in Space’: The Role of Social Networking in University-based Entrepreneurial Learning by Lockett, Quesada-Pallarès, Williams-Middleton, Padilla-Meléndez and Jack who explore the impact of social networking on learning in the UK and Sweden;
  • Entrepreneurship in Vocational Education:  A Case Study of the Brazilian Context by Stadler and Smith, in which entrepreneurship education in vocational studies in Brazil is explored;
  • Breaking in the Waves: Routines and Rituals in Entrepreneurship Education by Neergaard and Christensen, who present an exploratory study of how classroom routines and rituals impact on entrepreneurship education;
  • The Phenomenon of Student-Led Enterprise Groups by Preedy and Jones who investigate how the simulated business ‘roles’ performed in student-led enterprise groups afford and enhance experiential and social learning;
  • A Mystagogical View of ‘Withness’ in Entrepreneurship Education by Refai and Higgins investigates entrepreneurship education from a mystagogy perspective, exploring notions of identity with and initiation into entrepreneurship.

Papers on learning amongst those in firms are also included in this special edition:

  • Help Wanted! Exploring the Value of Entrepreneurial Mentoring at Start-Up by Brodie, Van Saane, and Osowska presents a qualitative study of mentoring in five start-up ventures;
  • Up the ANTe: Understanding Entrepreneurial Leadership Learning through Actor-Network Theory by Smith, Kempster and Barnes focuses on leadership in the small business, how it is learnt and its importance.

These papers form a valuable contribution to the study of entrepreneurship education and learning amongst entrepreneurs. Through this special issue we seek to present a scholarly voice which seeks to foster innovative and accessible scholarly writing which is of crucial importance to any research field. The ability of any publication to develop material which engages with practical experience and action must be a key priority in the advancement of future practice and scholarship. The uniqueness of the ISBE community to develop and stimulate activities which can serve the ISBE community provides an extremely valuable network of resources for early career researchers, students and practitioners.

The special issue articles ‘Breaking in the Waves: Routines and Rituals in Entrepreneurship Education’ by Neergaard and Christensen, and ‘‘Lost in Space’: The Role of Social Networking in University-based Entrepreneurial Learning’ by Lockett, Quesada-Pallarès, Williams-Middleton, Padilla-Meléndez and Jack are currently free to read through Industry and Higher Education.

The 2017 Institute for Small Business and Entrepreneurship Conference is taking place 8-9 November 2017 in Belfast, and has a theme of ‘‘Borders’, prosperity and entrepreneurial responses.

Students as Protégés: Factors That Lead to Success

[We’re pleased to welcome author Stephen Bear of  Fairleigh Dickenson University. Bear recently published an article in the Journal of Management Education entitled “Students as Protégés: Factors That Lead to Success,” co-authored by Gwen Jones. Below, Bear outlines the importance of this study:]

26111521686_8aeaf7a60a_z.jpgWe have established, in our undergraduate curriculum, a practitioner-mentoring program for all business students in our sophomore-level organizational behavior course. The intent of the program is that, early in the students’ business education, they will begin to link and apply the theories of organizational behavior to actual workplace situations through regular interactions with their mentor throughout the semester.  For many students the mentoring program is the highlight of the course, while for others the mentoring program is just another required course assignment.  This range of reactions led us to wonder what factors encourage satisfaction with practitioner-student mentoring relationships?  The level of satisfaction with a mentor is important because dissatisfaction can prompt a protégé to spend less time with a mentor and can reduce the quality of mentoring exchanges and the overall effectiveness of the mentoring relationship (Ortiz-Walters, Eddleston & Simone, 2010).

In our study we examined five independent variables that we believed could affect satisfaction:  networking to find a mentor, trust in the mentor, self-disclosure to the mentor, role modelling by the mentor and mentoring program understanding.  While each variable was positively related to mentoring relationship satisfaction, the most surprising finding of the study was the importance of student networking to find a mentor.  Many students initially have difficulty finding a mentor, and we have debated whether faculty should step in to ensure that each student has a high quality mentor.  Our study showed that when student’s network to find their own mentors this is positively associated with mentoring relationship satisfaction.  Students who found their own mentors were more satisfied with their mentoring relationships than students who relied on the professor to match them with a mentor.  We believe this finding is very relevant to faculty and to staff that establish mentoring programs as it suggests that whenever possible, student protégés not faculty should play the key role in the selection of their mentor.  Finally the relationship between networking and mentoring relationship satisfaction is likely complex and should be explored further in future research. In our study, 77% of students were successful in finding their mentors through networking, and analysis indicated that there were no significant differences in finding a mentor, as based on age, gender, or race/ethnicity. An opportunity for future research is to determine whether socioeconomic class or a student’s first-generation college status would influence the ability to network to find a mentor, as these students might have fewer networking contacts.

Reference
Ortiz-Walters, R., Eddleston, K. A., & Simione, K. (2010). Satisfaction with mentoring

Student photo attributed to the University of the Fraser Valley (CC).

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The Brain Basis for the Digital Daze of Millennials

6858063937_1fb1b7685c_z[We’re pleased to welcome Tim Brown of University of California, San Diego. Tim recently published a rejoinder to the article “Digital Technology and Student Cognitive Development: The Neuroscience of the University Classroom” entitled “On the Brain Basis of Digital Daze in Millennial Minds,” published in Journal of Management Education. Tim’s interview for the piece:]

  • What inspired you to be interested in this topic?

As a neuroscientist who studies child brain development, I strongly support the promotion of public policies that will help edify the minds and brains of our youngest citizens. So I’m quite interested in the recent widespread use of digital media by children and adolescents and the possible cognitive effects this phenomenon might be having on them. Scientifically, it’s a difficult question to pin down, but with our widely available new noninvasive brain imaging and recording tools (e.g., functional magnetic resonance imaging— fMRI, electroencephalography— EEG, magnetoencephalography— MEG) it should be possible.

  • Were there findings that were surprising to you?

One of the most surprising aspects of this topic to me is how very little peer-reviewed neuroscientific evidence there is (if Current Issue Coverany!) for this “digital daze” phenomenon. This is somewhat surprising in light of the fact that the phenomenon has been well documented behaviorally and because there seems to be a general consensus that the amount of time youngsters spend being “techno-tethered” is worrisome from a psychological health standpoint. It seems that some are taking for granted the idea that these brains are actually being “re-wired” to be shallower processors of information without the scientific evidence required to make this inference.

  • How do you see this study influencing future research and/or practice?

I think the issue is certainly an important one and I hope that some of the points I have chosen to emphasize will lead to more and better research on the possible brain effects of purported “screen addiction”. At the same time, as I suggest in the article, I also believe that brain measures are simply neither necessary nor sufficient for making informed decisions about many such public policy issues. Cognitive, behavioral, and academic measures should remain the stalwarts for assessing potential problems like this and for measuring the success of solutions that we put into practice.

An excerpt from the rejoinder:

Given what we know about how brains work, activities performed at such lengths must have some effects on the young brains involved. At all phases of human development and aging, our brains reflect within their structural and functional organization aspects of the activities, both mental and physical, in which we are engaged (Poldrack, Desmond, Glover, & Gabrieli, 1998; Ungerleider, Doyona, & Karnic, 2002). But as Cavanaugh and colleagues articulate, the concern is precisely that these youngsters’ brains are not really engaged during many of these tasks. And one principle that has emerged from developmental cognitive neuroscience research is that the growing brain shows a progressive commitment of resources with increasing age and decreasing plasticity overall (Stiles, Brown, Haist, & Jernigan, 2015; Stiles, Reilly, Levine, Trauner, & Nass, 2012). So in addition to fears that these protracted digital activities might be bad for students, we can also certainly imagine that some of this time might be better spent devoted to any number of activities that we know or suspect are good for developing minds and brains.

You can read the article “Digital Technology and Student Cognitive Development: The Neuroscience of the University Classroom” and Tim Brown’s rejoinder “On the Brain Basis of Digital Daze in Millennial Minds” from Journal of Management Education free for the next two weeks by clicking here.

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*Image attributed to Campus Party Brazil (CC)

Read the August 2016 Issue of Journal of Management Education!

4537055943_82352d7853_zThe August 2016 issue of Journal of Management Education is now available online and can be accessed free for the next 30 days. The August issue features a provocative article from authors J. Michael Cavanaugh, Catherine C. Giapponi, and Timothy D. Golden, entitled “Digital Technology and Student Cognitive Development: The Neuroscience of the University Classroom,” which delves into how digital technology is changing the way students learn on a neurological level, and how management educators should reevaluate their approach to teaching as a result. In particular, the article highlights the negative impact digital technology has on students “deep thinking” capabilities. The authors argue that management education should help students develop multiple literacies across contexts, teaching students reading, comprehension, and complex thinking that may be lost if teachers focus wholly on technology and digital media. The abstract for the article:

Current Issue Cover

Digital technology has proven a beguiling, some even venture addictive, presence in the lives of our 21st century (millennial) students. And while screen technology may offer select cognitive benefits, there is mounting evidence in the cognitive neuroscience literature that digital technology is restructuring the way our students read and think, and not necessarily for the better. Rather, emerging research regarding intensive use of digital devices suggests something more closely resembling a Faustian quandary: Certain cognitive skills are gained while other “deep thinking” capabilities atrophy as a result of alterations in the neural circuitry of millennial brains. This has potentially profound implications for management teaching and practice. In response, some advocate that we “meet students where we find them.” We too acknowledge the need to address student needs, but with the proviso that the academy’s trademark commitment to penetrating, analytical thinking not be compromised given the unprecedented array of existential challenges awaiting this generation of students. These and rising faculty suspicions of a new “digital divide” cropping up in the management classroom represents a timely opportunity for management educators to reflect not only on how today’s students read and learn, but equally, on what and how we teach.

The issue also features a rejoinder from author Caroline Williams-Pierce, who offers an interesting counterargument to Cavanaugh, Giapponi, and Golden’s article, arguing that given their autonomy, students can engage in deep interest-driven learning through digital media.

You can read the August 2016 issue of Journal of Management Education free for the next 30 days by clicking here. Want to stay current on all of the latest research from Journal of Management EducationClick here to sign up for e-alerts!

*Ipad image attributed to Gustav Holmström (CC)

Gather Classroom Data and Encourage Learning with the Attendance2 App

JME[We’re pleased to welcome Cathy Finger of St. Mary’s College. Professor Finger published a review entitled “iOS Application, ‘Attendance2′” in the April 2015 issue of Journal of Management Education.]

While teaching introductory accounting at a liberal arts college, I found that students were more engaged if I monitored student attendance and rewarded students with points for professionalism (such as attendance, punctuality, and no classroom disruptions). I was facing a term with four accounting classes, each with three class meetings per week, and dreaded the necessary recordkeeping. By chance, a colleague showed me the Attendance2 app for iOS devices (iPhone, iPod, iPod Touch, and iPad). After using it for two years, I have found this tool to be indispensable for teaching because of the time it saves me and the information I now have available at my fingertips. I also believes that the app could help scholars collect classroom data for research. I wrote my Resource Review for the Journal of Management Education to inform other business professors of the app’s existence and features.

The abstract:

The iOS application (app) Attendance2 allows instructors to record attendance and class participation electronically while viewing students’ photos, making the process more efficient and reliable. Instructors can then quickly summarize the data in a spreadsheet report. The app has flexible settings so instructors can tailor their data collection to meet their specific teaching needs. It can be a useful tool for instructors across the curriculum, including business instructors, who do not want to be buried in record-keeping tasks but still want to motivate attendance or to reward class participation. I describe the app’s features, discuss ways it can be used in the classroom, and discuss the costs and benefits of using the app.

You can read “iOS Application, ‘Attendance2′” from Journal of Management Education by clicking here. Did you know that you can have all the latest research from Journal of Management Education sent directly to your inbox? Just click here to sign up for e-alerts!


 

Enhancing Student PsyCap in an Online Learning Environment

computer-room-314632-m[We’re pleased to welcome Joshua J. Daspit of Mississippi State University. Dr. Daspit recently published an article in Journal of Management Education with T. C. Mims of Texas Woman’s University and Staci M. Zavattaro of Mississippi State University entitled “The Role of Positive Psychological States in Online Learning: Integrating Psychological Capital Into the Community of Inquiry Framework.”]

The abstract:

  • What inspired you to be interested in this topic?

My colleagues and I found this topic interesting because in addition to conducting research, a large portion of our jobs is dedicated to working with students. Each of us uses online components within our classes or teaches courses that are fully online – as many instructors do today – and the idea started from a simple desire to understand how we can enhance student learning within an online environment.

  • Were there findings that were surprising to you?

To understand how learning occurs within the context of an online environment, we used the Community of Inquiry (CoI) framework to conceptualize how learning occurs. The CoI suggests three presences exist within an online learning environment. First, there is a teaching presence that consists of course development and facilitation by the instructor. Second, a social presence exists when individuals interact with peers within the online context. Last, the CoI suggests that the other two factors influence an individual-level cognitive presence. In other words, the teaching and social presences influence student learning.

In this study, we extend the CoI framework to account for an additional presence. Specifically, we suggest that an additional, individual-level factor drives the student’s learning, and that factor is the individual student’s psychological capital (or PsyCap). PsyCap cJME_72ppiRGB_powerpointonsists of the student’s self-efficacy, hope, optimism, and resilience. Without these, we suggest, the student is likely to have difficulty learning.

After testing the relationships among PsyCap and the components of the CoI framework, we find that instructors are able to positively influence the student’s PsyCap via the teaching presence. Additionally, the student’s PsyCap has a positive influence on the social presence within the online environment, and most notably, PsyCap positively influences the student’s learning (i.e., cognitive presence).

  • How do you see this study influencing future research and/or practice?

In the article, we offer suggestions for specific ways that instructors of online courses can enhance the student’s PsyCap and thereby enhance the student’s learning. For example, instructors may utilize an online PsyCap training session early in the semester as such trainings are shown to positively enhance the PsyCap of individuals.

We look forward to suggestions from other instructors who have found innovative ways to enhance student PsyCap and learning in online courses.

You can read “The Role of Positive Psychological States in Online Learning: Integrating Psychological Capital Into the Community of Inquiry Framework” from Journal of Management Education by clicking here. Want to know about all the latest research from Journal of Management Education? Click here to sign up for e-alerts!


Josh DaspitJoshua J. Daspit, Ph.D., is an Assistant Professor of Management at Mississippi State University. His research interests include examining firm capabilities and innovation with a primary focus on absorptive capacity and family business. His work has appeared in Entrepreneurship Theory & Practice, Academy of Management Learning & Education, Journal of Managerial Issues, and other outlets. Prior to joining academia, he worked as a senior consultant for an international consulting firm and served as Director of Community Affairs for a member of Congress. (Follow him on Twitter: @JoshDaspit.)

TC MimsTina C. Mims, Ph.D., is currently serving as a Visiting Lecturer at Texas Woman’s University. Dr. Mims is a recently vetted PhD in Marketing after practicing marketing as VP & Director roles at Fortune 1000 firms. She is passionate regarding the preparation of both graduate and undergraduate students to have a competency based learning experience transferable to their chosen careers.

Staci ZavattaroStaci M. Zavattaro, Ph.D., is an associate professor of public administration at the University of Central Florida. Her main research interests include place branding and marketing, as well as social media use within the public sector. Her books include Cities for Sale (SUNY Press), Place Branding Through Phases of the Image (Palgrave Macmillan), and Social Media in Government: Theory and Practice (CRC Press). She serves as managing editor of Administrative Theory & Praxis and belongs at the Public Administration Theory Network, the Public Management Research Association, and the American Society for Public Administration.

What Do Students Think of Social Media in the Classroom?

designer-in-action-93129-mIt may not come as much of a shock to hear that young adults go on social media the most. According to Pew Research Center’s , 87% of Facebook users are between 18 and 29. As social media has become more popular, educators have jumped on board as well. A 2013 study done by Pearson Learning Solutions and the Babson Survey Research Group found that of the 8,000 faculty surveyed, 41% used social media as a teaching tool. But just how useful do students actually find social media in the classroom? Stacy Neier and Linda Tuncay Zayer explore this topic in their article “Students’ Perceptions and Experiences of Social Media in Higher Education” from Journal of Marketing Education.

The abstract:

Recent research has discussed the opportunities associated with the use of social media tools in the classroom, but has JME(D)_72ppiRGB_powerpointnot examined the perceptions students themselves hold about its usefulness in enhancing their educational experience. This research explores students’ perceptions of social media as an effective pedagogical tool. Undergraduate students in a midsized, private university taking a marketing course were surveyed about their social media usage and preferences as well as their perceptions regarding the use of social media in higher education. Additional qualitative data collection with students probed into motivations for social media use in education as well as instructor and university perceptions. Findings reveal openness to using social media in education, uncover interactive and information motives for its use, and offer theoretical and pedagogical implications. Importantly, we offer insights into how educators can strategically incorporate social media tools into the classroom as well as how the use of social media can potentially affect students’ views of the instructor and the university.

Click here to read “Students’ Perceptions and Experiences of Social Media in Higher Education” from Journal of Marketing Education. Want to have all the latest research like this sent directly to your inbox? Click here to sign up for e-alerts!