Why Do Women Leave Science and Engineering Fields?

To say that women are underrepresented in science and engineering fields is an understatement. It is also an oversimplification, because representation of women in STEM fields is a nuanced issue. Consider for instance that while women are undeniably underrepresented in engineering fields, 8205174905_280c35031e_zthey are overrepresented in life sciences. This dichotomy manifests itself in a glaring gender patenting gap, where women hold a very low share of patents. In the recent ILR Review article “Why Do Women Leave Science and Engineering?” author Jennifer Hunt seeks to better understand why women exit STEM fields, focusing particularly on engineering. The abstract for her paper:

The author uses the 2003 and 2010 National Survey of College Graduates to examine the higher exit rate of women compared to men from science and engineering relative to other fields. The author finds that the higher relative exit rate is driven by engineering rather than science, and that half the gap can be explained by the relatively greater exit rate from ILR_72ppiRGB_powerpointengineering of women dissatisfied with pay and promotion opportunities. Family-related constraints and dissatisfaction with working conditions are found to be only secondary factors. The relative exit rate by gender from engineering does not differ from that of other fields once women’s relatively high exit rates from male fields generally are taken into account.

You can read “Why Do Women Leave Science and Engineering?” from ILR Review free for the next two weeks by clicking here. Want to know all about the latest research from ILR ReviewClick here to sign up for e-alerts!

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*Scientist image credited to NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (CC)

Grappa: A Radical Success Story

3351710029_88bd725653_zThere was a time not too long ago when grappa, the popular Italian grape-based brandy, was considered a poor man’s drink. During the 1970s, grappa’s status was a sharp contrast to comparable foreign spirits, like cognac and whisky, both of which were considered higher quality alcohols. And yet, toward the end of the 1970s, perceptions of grappa shifted radically–grappa became not only a popular, more expensive spirit, but also one that was considered on par with cognac and whisky. This radical shift begs the question, how did grappa shed its bad reputation? In the recent article from Administrative Science Quarterly entitled “How Cinderella Became a Queen: Theorizing Radical Status Change,” authors Giuseppe Delmestri and Royston Greenwood explain that the grappa itself never changed. Rather, grappa producers took steps to break grappa from its prior image. The abstract for the paper:

Using a case study of the Italian spirit grappa, we examine status recategorization—the vertical extension and reclassification of an entire market category. Grappa was historically a low-status product, but in the 1970s one regional distiller took steps that led to a radical break from its traditional image, so that in just over a decade high-quality grappa became an exemplar of cultured Italian lifestyle and held a market position in the same class as cognac and whisky. We use this context to articulate “theorization by allusion,” which occurs through three mechanisms: category detachment—distancing a social object from its existing category; category emulation—presenting that object so that it hints at the practices of a high-status category; and category sublimation—shifting from local, field-specific references to broader, societal-level frames. This novel theorization is particularly appropriate for explaining change from low to high status because it ASQ Coveravoids resistance to and contestation of such change (by customers, media, and other sources) as a result of status imperatives, which may be especially strong in mature fields. Unlike prior studies that have examined the status of organizations within a category, ours foregrounds shifts in the status and social meaning of a market category itself.

You can read “How Cinderella Became a Queen: Theorizing Radical Status Change” from Administrative Science Quarterly free for the next two weeks by clicking here. Want to know all about the latest research from Administrative Science QuarterlyClick here to sign up for e-alerts!

During the month of April, you can access 1.5 million article across SAGE Publishing’s 940+ journals for free–how? Sign up here for free trial access!

*Grappa bottles image credited to star5112 (CC)

Whitened Résumés: How Race and Diversity Impacts the Application Process

4818650660_8e0cfee0de_zWhat do employers look for in job applications? This is an essential question for job seekers, and depending upon how an employer represents their hiring practices, it may determine how job applicants choose to represent themselves in their applications. When it comes to race and diversity, this can be an especially complex matter, especially for applicants considering résumé whitening. In the recent Administrative Science Quarterly article, “Whitened Résumés: Race and Self-Presentation in the Labor Market,” authors Sonia K. Kang, Katherine A. DeCelles, András Ticsik, and Sora Jun consider how the presentation of an employer’s hiring practices directly impacts how applicants choose to represent themselves. The abstract for their paper:

Using interviews, a laboratory experiment, and a résumé audit study, we examine racial minorities’ attempts to avoid anticipated discrimination in labor markets by concealing or downplaying racial cues in job applications, a practice known as “résumé whitening.” Interviews with racial minority university students reveal that while some minority job seekers reject this practice, others view it as essential and use a variety of whitening techniques. Building on the qualitative findings, we conduct a lab study to examine how racial minority job seekers change their résumés in response to different job postings. Results show that when ASQ Covertargeting an employer that presents itself as valuing diversity, minority job applicants engage in relatively little résumé whitening and thus submit more racially transparent résumés. Yet our audit study of how employers respond to whitened and unwhitened résumés shows that organizational diversity statements are not actually associated with reduced discrimination against unwhitened résumés. Taken together, these findings suggest a paradox: minorities may be particularly likely to experience disadvantage when they apply to ostensibly pro-diversity employers. These findings illuminate the role of racial concealment and transparency in modern labor markets and point to an important interplay between the self-presentation of employers and the self-presentation of job seekers in shaping economic inequality.

You can read “Whitened Résumés: Race and Self-Presentation in the Labor Market” from Administrative Science Quarterly free for the next two weeks by clicking here. Want to know all about the latest research from Administrative Science QuarterlyClick here to sign up for e-alerts!

During the month of April, you can access 1.5 million article across SAGE Publishing’s 940+ journals for free–how? Sign up here for free trial access!

*Career fair image credited to Michael Starghill, Partnership for Public Service (CC) 

Job Satisfaction and Work Climate: New Collections from GOM!

GOM_Feb_2016.inddGroup & Organization has added two new article collections to the Editor’s Choice Collections. The new Job Satisfaction collection offers a selection of interesting articles that explore topics like career plateauing, internal job transitions, and the effect of leader humor on job satisfaction.

The new Work Climate collection delves into workplace research, including papers on workplace boredom, personality as a predictor of climate, and the impact of bad behavior in groups. In the article “The Psychological Benefits of Creating an Affirming Climate for Workplace Diversity,” authors Donna Chrobot-Mason and Nicholas P. Aramovich try to identify how workplace diversity can lead to positive outcomes. The abstract from their paper:

Workforce diversity has been described as a double-edged sword; it has the potential for positive and negative outcomes. To better understand why and how diversity leads to positive outcomes, we examined the relationship between employee perceptions of diversity climate perceptions and intent to turnover. We explored the role of four psychological outcome variables (organizational commitment, climate for innovation, psychological empowerment, and identity freedom) as possible mediators of this relationship. Racial and gender subgroup differences were also examined. Survey data were collected from 1,731 public employees. Findings suggest that when employees perceive equal access to opportunities and fair treatment, intent to turn over decreases. Furthermore, these relationships are significantly mediated by psychological outcomes. Implications for diversity management and training are discussed.

6983317491_e8d8440af8_zIn addition, new articles have been added to Group & Organization Management‘s other collections, including the Editor’s Choice collection on Creativity & Innovation. New articles to this collection explore the impact of job complexity, team culture, and interaction on the creative process. In the article “Defining Creative Ideas: Toward a More Nuanced Approach,” authors Robert C. Litchfield, Lucy L. Gilson, and Paul W. Gilson distinguish types of creative ideas to better understand the creative process. The abstract from their paper:

Organizational creativity research has focused extensively on distinguishing creativity from routine, non-creative work. In this conceptual article, we examine the less considered issue of variation in the type of creative ideas. Starting from the premise that creativity occurs along a continuum that can range from incremental to radical, we propose that unpacking variation in the mix of novelty and two common conceptions of usefulness—feasibility and value—results in seven meaningfully different types of creativity. We group these types of creativity into four creative continua scaled according to novelty to provide an organizing framework for future research.

To celebrate Group & Organization Managements new collections and articles, we have opened all of the articles in the Job Satisfaction, Work Climate, and Creativity & Innovation collections for the next 60 days. Interested in Group & Organization‘s other Editor’s Choice collections? Click here.  Want to know all about the latest research from Group & Organization? Click here to sign up for e-alerts!

*Family image credited to dbking (CC)

All That Glitters is Not Gold: Pay Inequality in Hollywood

19764935991_a885f36e35_zThe gender-wage gap is not a newly discovered phenomenon, but recently, pay inequality has been pushed into the limelight by several outspoken actresses who are dissatisfied with the blatant gender-wage gap in Hollywood. While the gender-wage gap impacts women across many industries, pay inequality in the entertainment industry stands out in that gender and age both play a part in how much actors and actresses earn. In their paper, “Age, Gender, and Compensation: A Study of Hollywood Movie Stars,” published in Journal of Management Inquiryauthors Irene E. De Pater of National University of Singapore, Timothy A. Judge of University of Notre Dame, and Brent A. Scott of Michigan State University compare the average earnings of top actors and actresses to better understand the gender-wage gap in Hollywood.

The abstract:

Research on the gender-wage gap shows equivocal evidence regarding its magnitude, JMI_72ppiRGB_powerpointwhich likely stems from the different wage-related variables researchers include in their calculations. To examine whether pay differentials solely based on gender exist, we focused on the earnings of top performing professionals within a specific occupation to rule out productivity-related explanations for the gender-wage gap. Specifically, we investigated the interaction of gender and age on the earnings of Hollywood top movie stars. The results reveal that the average earnings per film of female movie stars increase until the age of 34 but decrease rapidly thereafter. Male movie stars’ average earnings per film reach the maximum at age 51 and remain stable after that.

You can read “Age, Gender, and Compensation: A Study of Hollywood Movie Stars” from Journal of Management Inquiry by clicking here. The paper was also cited in an article on Time.com, which you can read here.

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*Jennifer Lawrence image credited to Gage Skidmore (CC)

Tourism as a Tool for Peace and Revitalization in Afghanistan

Kabul MountainsMuch has been said on the tragedy and complications of war, more than can be expounded upon here. But considering the complexity of international conflict, it is not hard to understand that the transition from war to peace is far from a simple, fast process. War leaves a lasting impact on the countries and people involved, not only in terms of physical damage, but also psychological and social damage that in some ways can be much more difficult to heal. Undoubtedly, one of the questions that emerges after a conflict ends is how can two countries with recent conflict surmount persisting cultural ambiguity and negatives stereotypes? In the Journal of Travel Research article, “The Nutella Project: An Education Initiative to Suggest Tourism as a Means to Peace between the United States and Afghanistan,” authors Angela Durko and James Petrick of Texas A&M University consider tourism as a tool to promote peace and combat the lasting negative social impact of war.

The abstract:JTR_72ppiRGB_powerpoint

How different the world would be had countries not reopened their borders to
welcome tourists after conflict, thus providing opportunities for travelers to learn, understand, and overcome potential stereotypes and negative perceptions of a country’s residents and environment. This study reveals preliminary results of an education initiative focused on understanding, addressing, and overcoming negative perceptions, with the possibility of creating interest in, and opportunities for, a revitalization of tourism in Afghanistan. The study offers contact theory as a way to present organic images of a place to help create perceptions of destinations that are more accurate than induced images. Results revealed that contact theory, through intergroup dialogue between residents of two countries with noted historic conflict, provided the means for reducing cultural ambiguity and overcoming stereotypes. The findings offer implications for both the tourism and education sectors and suggest that intergroup dialogue may be key to increasing visit intentions and, most importantly, enhancing a destination’s image after conflict.

You can read “The Nutella Project: An Education Initiative to Suggest Tourism as a Means to Peace between the United States and Afghanistan” from Journal of Travel Research free for the next two weeks by clicking here. Want to know all about the latest research from Journal of Travel Research? Click here to sign up for e-alerts!

Discovering Surprising Connections: The Key to Finding Content?

Where do researchers go first to find new scholarly materials? Do researchers relay on recommendations from peers and faculty members to help the research process? A new two-part white paper from SAGE Publishing explains how serendipitous discovery during research can propel researchers in the right direction. With this in mind, SAGE developed a new discovery tool, SAGE Recommends, which helps users uncover relevant research materials by drawing connections between content.

Check out an infographic for the white paper below, or read the original white papers, “Expecting the Unexpected: Serendipity, Discovery, and the Scholarly Research Process” and “The Story of SAGE Recommends”.

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Read the original white papers “Expecting the Unexpected: Serendipity, Discovery, and the Scholarly Research Process” and “The Story of SAGE Recommends”, or find the original press release here. Interested in reading more SAGE white papers? Find a full archive here.